Multiple Choice Questions
1. Why did people initially believe that a horse named “Clever Hans” could do math and that a procedure called “facilitated communication” could enable autistic children to type out complex messages?
Answer: (3) In both cases, people initially failed to recognize alternative explanations for the observed behavior.
2. Loftus’s research demonstrates which of the following features of memory?
Answer: (2) That a memory for an event can be reconstructed so that it contains new information that was not available at the time of the event.
3. Loftus’s research on the reconstructive nature of memory has been applied to which of the following issues?
Answer: (4) All of these issues. Including:
a) The accuracy of eyewitness testimony
b) The existence of repressed memories of traumatic events
c) The accuracy of “fantastic memories” of paranormal events such as alien abductions
4. Why are psychological experiments often conducted under special controlled conditions that do not occur naturally outside the laboratory?
Answer: (2) The special conditions are necessary in order to pry apart naturally occurring relationships and isolate the variable of interest from other variables.
5. Loftus’s research shows that when research participants are shown an event and are then asked a question about the event that contains a false presupposition (that is, the question makes reference to an object that was not actually present during the event), the research participants are later likely to
Answer: (3) Claim to remember the nonexistent object.
6. What is the importance of manipulation and control in the experimental method?
Answer: (2) Manipulation and control help rule out plausible alternative explanations for the results.
Motivation Case Study Questions
1. What may have been some of the motivational and environmental factors contributing to Maria’s weight gain after childbirth?
Maria was excited by her fist born baby and focused her mind entirely to the child. The abrupt change of lifestyle changed her weight gain control since her mind was focused solely on the child. Spending almost her entire time with the child must have reduced her movements thus less body exercise. Maria’s reduced mobility is another factor that contributed to her weight gain. Emotional changes must have contributed too since she felt relieved from the burden of pregnancy; that is usually taken cautiously especially if it is the first pregnancy. Other emotions such as a feeling of achievement must have also contributed to weight gain. Some women tend to ignore a balanced diet which increases chances of weight gain.
2. If you were Maria’s physician, how would you explain to her the weight-set-point hypothesis?
Weight-set-point hypothesis indicates that the human body has a certain weight that it tries to maintain. The weight is maintained by internal adjustments of the body including breaking down of fats in case of excessive weight gain. The hypothesis also states that persons with higher weights have higher weight-set-points while those with lower weights have lower weight-set-points. The human body constantly adjusts metabolic rates in order to maintain the target weight which is the weight-set-point. However, people can impose too much work on the adjustment system such that their weights increase far beyond their weight-set-points. It is thus advisable to maintain our weight-set-point.
3. Which approaches to motivation might help to explain Maria’s unflagging determination to lose all the weight she had gained, and why?
Maria felt that regaining her normal weight would make her happier. She also felt that it would make her appreciated by the society including regaining her respect in the family. Moreover, she was pressured by her physician who indicated that the weight gain had consequences on her health. Therefore, she was motivated by the fact that she would become a better, healthier person by losing weight. She had to lose weight for her health, her family, the society and most importantly her happiness. All these reasons made weight loss a must- achieve, for her.
4. If Maria were your friend and she asked your advice on weight-loss strategies, what would you tell her?
The most important thing is first to determine changes in her life that are causing the weight gain. For her case, it is definitely postnatal effects; physical, social and emotional. She must accept these changes and devise ways to deal with them. She has to make inner commitments to achieve this. Another strategy is practicing healthy living standards. These living standards include a balanced diet and effective physical exercises. She should also involve her family and friends in the weight loss process. Finally, she must have perseverance, passion and determination to achieve her weight loss goals.
5. In what ways do you think emotion was tied into Maria’s weight gain and her subsequent weight loss?
After conceiving, Maria felt satisfied and complete with her baby and spent most of her time with the baby thus gaining weight. She must have been happy having successfully given birth. However, her happiness changed into sadness when she realized that her weight had increased gradually. She felt unappreciated and isolated by her family and the society. She had had to regain her image and these pressures increased her determination to lose weight.