(a) A researcher has decided to design a test that measures anxiety in job seekers prior to an interview. Items in the test will be measured using a Likert scale. Describe the process the researcher would undertake in order to construct the initial instrument, test the items, refine the instrument, and demonstrate the validity of the measure. Be sure to discuss at least three types of validity (other than face validity).
The development of research instruments such as a Likert Scale involves a crucial process aiming to guarantee its reliability and validity. More importantly, adherence to a proper process in research instrument construction, testing, and refining helps to minimize measurement bias or error (Gregory, 2014). The process encompasses five steps, which include determining the background, conceptualization, formatting, establishing validity, and reliability. The first step examine the intent, objectives, goals, research questions and target audience of the Likert Scale which offers a chance for efficient preparation and comprehensive understanding of the issue. The second step entails conceptualization of the Likert scale. It helps to create or formulate the questions or statements used in the research question.