Tuberculosis Pandemic Essay
The tuberculosis pandemic has been witnessed since the mid-1980s. The disease is one of the oldest diseases in the humankind’s history. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which was first isolated in 1982. Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of infectious diseases among adult population across the globe (Murray, Rosenthal, & Pfaller, 2013). It is characterized by coughing up of blood, high fatalities, and fever. The disease was initially known as white plague and was given the name tuberculosis in 1939. One third of the world’s population has been infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Seemungal & Wedzicha, 2006). In addition, new infections in the current population occur at a rate of 1 person per second.
Approximately 7-10 percent of tuberculosis infections cause active diseases which, if being untreated, cause more than 50 percent of deaths. Besides, this disease affects more than 8 million people across the world. In addition, more than 2 million people die of tuberculosis annually. In 19th century, tuberculosis pandemic killed nearly a quarter of the adult population in Europe (Murray, Rosenthal, & Pfaller, 2013).
Tuberculosis is now on the rise because of immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS co-infections. HIV has been an efficient amplifier of tuberculosis pandemic, particularly in sub-Saharan region for the last two decades. Additionally, severe malnutrition is increasing the incidence rate for the disease, especially among poor and refugees (Seemungal, & Wedzicha, 2006). Secondly, the inc