The future of online education. - Essay Prowess

The future of online education.

The future of online education.

Introduction

Online learning has been embraced by many institutions of higher learning in the recent past and the number of learners enrolled in open and distance learning has been on the rise. Universities and colleges throughout the world have created programs that suit the needs for effective distance learning. The increase in the demand for online learning has made the management of these higher learning institutions draft strategic plans to include online learning in their curriculum. There has been rise of myths and misconceptions related to the challenges of teaching the learners using the online platform, the compensations and support needed to acquire qualified tutors, the needs of the online learners, and capability of the available technologies all create difficulties in achieving the vision and missions of the planners. However, the discipline evolves daily with the emergence of new technologies (Allen & Seaman, 2010).

With the growth in the capability of e-learning technology (electronic books, text messaging, blogs, simulation, podcasting, and wikis.) which are making online learning attainable, the confusion increases. The emergence of these technologies confront the administrators of the institutions and the instructors leading to need for better planning and budgeting (Mitchell, 2009). The confusion that arise in online learning has made student drop out of online classes in search for better, more engaging education experiences and richer sources. Given the high demand for online learning platforms, the plethora of emerging technologies to include in teaching, the opportunities for innovation, and the budgetary problems it is argued that currently online learning is facing a flawless e-storm, linking technology, pedagogy and the needs of the learners (Bonk, 2009).

Putting into consideration the problems online learning is facing currently, it is not surprising that there are mixed opinions about the benefits of teaching online and the learning in the higher education institutions. Therefore, questions are rising as to what is the fate of online learning in the near future. To draft an understanding of the future picture of online learning, it requires first to understand the present trend in online learning (Mitchell, 2009).

Despite the changes in technology trends that show to the future of e-learning can be identified. The future happening is not very different from what is being experienced currently. Some significant shifts and changes in the nature of learning in general and online learning may be identified.

The following essay tries to explain what will happen in the future by not what ought to happen. Personally I believe in online learning but in this essay I am going to focus on the prediction but not the prescription. The study further makes prediction on the changing student expectations, roles of online instructors, student needs, projected technological use, and pedagogical innovations in online learning and teaching (Mitchell, 2009). .

Literature Review

To get a deep understanding of the trends that help predict the future, the study begins with an overview of the previous studies on the issue.

Pedagogy and Technology for Online Education

Several scholars have conducted studies to cover pedagogical plans and strategies for online teaching and learning. Partlow and Gibbs, conducted a study in Delphi on the state of the instructional technology available. From their study the two found out that the instruments should be project based, interactive, and collaborative, and provide learners with the freedom of choice or control over how they wish to learn. Keeton, conducted a study to establish the effectiveness of instructional practices basing on the effective teaching framework. He found out that instructional practices that embrace a face to face approach were more effective in passing the knowledge to the student. On interviewing postsecondary online tutors, Keeton found that the instructional instruments so far used on the online platform shave very high scores. The instructional practices that create an environment which supports and encourage inquiry from the learner had higher score. Also the instructional practices that elicit active and critical reflections from the learners, and broaden the learners experience on the topic of discussion were also higher rated by the selected sample (Mitchell, 2009).  

Bonk also has conducted a study on pedagogical practices and he found that only on average 40 percent of online instructors actually use online activities that relate to critical and creative thinking, interactive labs, hands on performance, scientific simulations, and data analysis. However, on questioning the sample, Bonk established that these activities are vital in an environment that adapts online learning. As a result of the differences in practice and theory, a gap exists that separates actual online practices and the preferred practices (Pastore & Carr-Chellman, 2009).

Online Teaching and Learning

A study conducted recently in the United States on higher education indicated that more that 5 million students register for online classes in fall 2012. According to the survey it was found that many postsecondary student prefer online learning as a long-term strategy for achieving academic goals. The study recommended that, given the significance of online learning and its importance to the postsecondary institutions, it is necessary for higher education institutions to offer quality online programs (Pastore & Carr-Chellman, 2009).

Other studies on academic achievement have however shown mixed findings but some researcher hold that online education can as effective as the traditional classroom education if instructional instruments are properly designed. Other studies on student satisfaction in online learning have reported both satisfied students and also dissatisfied students.

Other researchers have been conducted on support and faculty training.  They both show that these two are very important components in online learning. Some studies indicate that instructors play dissimilar roles from those of traditional classroom instructors as they teach as well as draft the residential courses with web enhancements. The news roles by the lectures require support and adequate training.  Some case studies conducted on faculty development programs show that the programs have positive effects on instructor transitions from lecturing in a face to face to an online setting (Fish & Wickersham, 2009).

A study conducted on the roles played technology in online learning indicate some important roles. The study indicates that technology has played an important role in expansion and development of online learning. Many universities have shown an increase in the use of online tools. In the past decade, administrators have sought ways to integrate emerging web technologies in the learning and teaching process in higher institutions. Several studies show that the use of blogs to promote collaboration and reflection of the students have been on the rise. Some scholars have promoted the credibility of using wikis to collaborate online learning and the use of podcasting is on the rise as a tool for instructing (Rovai & Jordan, 2008).

Review on Developments

Online learning has undergone a series of developments overtime. The identifiable trends are as follows.  One, a fast growth in institutions offering online learning. Two, the rapid growth in public learning using the internet. Three, a growth in the scholarly writings relating to online learning. Four, a rise in the marketing efforts that sell the benefits of online learning. The findings mean that online learning has become an integral part of higher education practice.

A research conducted by Tallent, et al (2007) showed an increased in number of enrollment in online learning in the United States every year. An average growth of 30 percent in registrations every year was established by the study. Sloan Consortium found out that the rate of online education registration exceeded that of overall registration in higher education. According to the findings of the Consortium, in fall 2008 over 4.7 million learners enrolled representing a 17 percent rise compared to 2007 (Tallent-Runnels & et al, 2007).

Rovai and Jordan found that universities are concentrating on student-centered learning but not the previous focus on faculty-centered tutor-based approach. Adapting this approach leads student service ensuring student learning (Rovai & Jordan, 2008). They also established that the satisfaction of students is reduced when the focus is totally on online approaches. Further, they established that students who have a low sense of community are more risky in dropping out. The trend towards blending learning offers a sense of community to students. It provides flexibility and convenience needed by the adult learners (Beqiri & et al, 2010).

Perceptions about online learning

A study conducted by Mitchell (2009) on the perception of college instructors on online learning is instrumental. The study showed that perceptions that people have change according to structural and procedural flexibilities produced by learning online. The administrators want to address the issues relating to how the faculty are tackling the ling-term impacts of changes that come with online learning. The study showed that the academic administrators reported a decrease in faculty approval of online learning in the past years. The study also pointed out that for there to be success in online learning, the faculty need to commit. The faculty see online learning as an additional load and they need adequate motivation to perform. There is a need to monitor the satisfaction of the faculty for the success of online earning (Bolliger & Wasilik, 2007).

Another study on perception was conducted by Sloan Consortium and pointed out questions on quality of teaching of the online courses. According to the findings of the consortium, 60 percent universities with online perceived online teaching as an inferior version of the face to face learning.  However, with the number of universities offering online courses increase, the percentage of the universities rating online teaching as inferior will decrease.

Study by Pastore and Carr-chellman (2010) reported that 97 percent of 110 committee chairs said they prefer hiring faculty with traditional degree that those with online degrees. They perceived online causes as “cash cows” but not effective means of developing creating thinker and researchers.  However, students and faculty perceive online learning to be as effective as face to face learning. A survey of 130 students, both undergraduates and graduates stated that they found online learning as time saving, flexible, equal and offering more courses. But the same student stated they preferred face to face learning than online classes (Pastore & Carr-Chellman, 2009).

III. Central theme of the paper

A look at the future technology

Today, technology is the channel via which instructions and information flows. Currently education centers offering online learning have to struggle with underpowered desktops and computers running dubious software in conveyed information to the distance learners. In the future this struggle is going to reduce. Bandwidth is becoming unlimited enabling the flow of huge amounts of information from the instructors to the learners. The use of multimedia and video conferring will be high beating the present reliance on emails. In many American and Canadian cities there is an increasing use of high speed internet provided by cable television services. The increase in the offers with improved data compression expertise is a promise for the increase in the flow of huge amounts of data using the cheap bandwidth (Kim & Bonk, 2006).

The use of PAD (Personal Access Device) is becoming more common in online learning combining the functions of the book, notebook, and pen. The use of the device makes online learning more enjoyable to the learners attracting more students. The developments in the presentation world is a plus to the future on online learning as the presentations are becoming easy to use. The growing products such as PowerPoint and director are making it easy to convey multimedia content making it easy for students to study using the powerful PADs giving an impression of real study books (Fish & Wickersham, 2009). The use of websites in conveying instructions to the learners is a tool that is helping personalize the instructions. The rising use of virtual reality and simulations further sophisticates the online learning offering high quality learning where student can image using real presentations. The laboratory practical can be done using simulations giving a student an experience similar to that of a traditional real classroom. The technological advancements such efforts towards achieving total immersion simulators by integrating then into the PADs promises bright future for online learning (Allen, 2008).

Interaction and Online Conferencing

It forms another major tool that directly affects the future of e-learning. It forms a discussion platform as well as a platform to teach the students. The technological innovations such as chat platforms, hangouts, Gmail+ create a chance for the students to interact with the lectures and other students. The use of online conferencing is becoming an important skill of interaction just like the social skills. However, for the success of online education in the near future, the choice of the tool of interaction is very important. The use of relevant tools such as teleconferencing, internet conference suites, and interactive televisions is on the rise. Investing in these platforms is key in driving the future of e-education. The reducing costs of interacting via the above mentioned platforms is further boosting the success of online learning (Mitchell, 2009).

The developing of multimedia and conferencing standards that have allowed designers to introduce apparatuses of online communicating systems like clients further, personalizing the content. Examples of available standards are Standardized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) and H.323 voice-over IP video conferencing standard. The development of (telnet) terminal emulation have increased to access to a remote mainframe computers increasing the accessibility of online classes by students (Hollenbeck & et al, 2009).

Also, the development of World Wide Web protocols such as HTTP meaning Hyper Text Transfer Protocol has allowed developing independent clients or browsers who can be able to access the web server from any device. Such a development forms a door for accessing the educational material available on the websites that the learners can read. Further, this allows individual communications between the teacher and the student increasing the confidentiality of information.

IV. Discussion on the topic moving forward

Personalized Education

Online learning is increasing the possibility of personalizing learning to an individual student than the traditional classroom approach. In the traditional approach the completion of the course ids completely dependent on the teacher. The future of online education is going to be topic based than class based. The completion of the course will completely depend on the capability of the student to cover the topics than the teacher. The increase in the construction of learning models that are programed and constructive is on the rise. Online learning will further facilitate the selection of the courses by the students themselves rather than the traditional approach where there is a preselected curriculum for a given class. The development of ED (education delivery) technology is the major instrument in achieving personalized education. The role of this technology is to manage the learning process (Fish & Wickersham, 2009).

In the future with online learning there is going to be freedom in the selection of topics by the students. The available topics will depend on the student’s educational level, student aptitude, and societal need. The available topics will be rated by the learner’s ability as demonstrated in the previous learning level, parent control, and the legislation governing learning in the student’s political jurisdiction. The rise in the use of online learning platforms recently is offering students opportunities for selecting topics than before. The learning styles will be tailored to suit the needs of individual students (Pastore & Carr-Chellman, 2009). The appreciation of the fact that students learn differently is easy to be practiced using the online platform. There is easy identification of individual needs and tailoring the learning style to meet the individual needs. Therefore, students who learn by exploring will have a variety of options while the students who prefer learning by order the use of the video stream on similar information can be applied. The students who prefer learning by listening to an oral lecture may be presented by video to watch and listen to taped lectures while those who learn visually can have graphical demonstrations of the concepts of discussion. Recording and tracking the progress of the student will be very easy using the online learning because the task can be handled online automatically by the use of the system. The computer can compile the data that is required for monitoring and tracking the progress of the student. Also, the recording of grades, progress, monitoring attendance all will be performed using the system (Mitchell, 2009). .

Time and Place Independence

Presently online education is time independent but not completely place independent. Students are still tied to a specific place of accessing the computer and internet connection. The adoption of PADs will change this. Time independence can be measured in terms of the learning hours by the student. However, in some cases there are variable that need to be considered in determining time independence in relation to online learning. A look at hours of work, daily start, end time, break hours, time per activity, days of the week, time per lesson, hours per week, start date, year worked, date of completion, and number of courses etc. is important. With online learning these variable may be individually set (Pastore & Carr-Chellman, 2009).

Another factor is that of pacing. Traditional learning is favored by many because self-paced education is only effective for the highly motivated students. Where other elements such as family job and motivation are lacking self-paced education is less effective. Therefore, with self-paced online learning, low completion rate is evident. Development of mechanisms to ensure an orderly and regular progression by the students will be very significant. However, online education stands out for the fact that pacing mechanisms can be applied at an individual level and not a group level. Also, it is easy to achieve pacing in online education than in traditional education (Tallent-Runnels & et al, 2007).

Place independence does not purely mean learning from home but it means that a student will not be tied to a specific place of learning. The traditional and contemporary open learning lacks the flexibility in the place of learning. By achieving place independence online education will revolutionize education than what has been anticipated. Online education through the adoption of the use of the PAD will achieve place independence because the PAD is highly portable. Students will be able to conduct learning activities from anywhere using the PAD. The achievement of place independence will increase activity in learning as students will be able to visit different places and learn. More people are seeking place and time independence in learning that will be achieved by going the online way. The technological contributions remain a vital factor in the realization of this goals. The working class will have an easy time in conducting their studies by being able to track their progress in academics from anywhere (Orellana, 2007).

Learning Communities

Education being a social activity and it is expected to bring together people from different places. There is emergence of interest based communities comprising of people who have a common site on the web. The rise in the use of e-education platforms has increased the interaction of people from different locations to share ideas on different topics. There are different groups of people on the internet who share ideas on different topics such as the Computer geek’s hangout, gardener’s hangout and many others. Relationships have developed and continue to develop amongst the members of online communities (Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, 2006).

Just like the above developments, there will be an increase in the number of peer based learning communities in different communities. The emergence of peer based learning communities is very important because they offer an environment full of information for learning purposes. Such developments further develop the efficiency of online education because they product materials and ideas needed for study. On learning within a community in the internet a student feels more home and more in a classroom by interacting with people with similar challenges and needs. The students might be pursuing different goals all together but the means of learning is similar and thus the community offers the mutual support, reassurance and encouragement.

Further, the existence of learning communities on the internet have a substantial impact on designing and delivering e-learning commands in the future, the designers can borrow ideas from the needs of the communities and tailor their products to meet the requirements of the individual communities. The fact that peer based communities consist of members in a particular geographical location, it means that it is easy to tailor the systems basing on the needs of the students in a given location (Pastore & Carr-Chellman, 2009).

The accreditation issue

The future of online education is faced by the issue of accreditation. With the growth of institutions offering online education the issue is going to become an issue of debate and it is projected that it is not going to get better. On the problem of online education if the fact that anyone who has a computer, a little knowledge and a modem can set up anything and call it a university. Questions of equality in the degrees attained from the different online universities will keep rising. The fact is it is problematic to have widely accepted standards bodies will remain a challenge to online education. The difficult is due to the fact that education is a culturally bound phenomenon, and the people of one culture will not accept the verdicts given by agents of another nation (Yen & Liu, 2009).

Assessment of learning and learning will diverge. The instructors will be distressed by the trend because they feel class involvement is important in the learning process. There is a possibility of testing not being conducted online and there will be an interaction of the testing bodies with the host school. The mother institution will remain important in online testing so as to help the testing body verify the identity of the student for testing. Because tests quantify in many ways that constructive learning or project based learning do not. Currently, the issue of everyone getting a pass or a fail it becomes challenging to differentiate between the best students and the learners who succeed by enduring. Given that opportunities in life narrow as a student goes up the education ladder it is important to set some quantification. Tests offer the fairest and the easiest way of quantifying. Therefore, in online education there will be a flourish in learning assessment. There will emerge small groups who prepare students for exams but who do not offer accreditation (Castle & McGuire, 2010).

The online institutions which will embrace the idea of providing a service rather than distribution of material will be successful. The catchphrase that education is a service but not a product will dominate the marketing strategies of many institutions offering online learning. Without offering service the institutions will offer students nothing better than what the online interactive encyclopedia offers. All these efforts will be aimed at given students the best and to meet the highest ranking standards in the society. The institutions which do not focus on the individual needs of students as well as the quality of information they pass will not succeed (Castle & McGuire, 2010).

Modularity

With the adoption of online education courses will be easily modulated to see the requirements of different clients. A course is not be perceived as single unit but as a pool of component parts that can be upgraded as per the different needs. The rise in the need for custom made courses for given organizations will spike the need for individual courses. The students need for additional materials on areas of weakness will be easily provided. Abridged courses will also be offered to students who have strong backgrounds in given fields. It will also be easy to vary the courses according to the needs of students regardless of their disciplines. There will be a menu in the course construction to allow students to make personal selections. The modules of learning will be modular consisting a collection of mechanisms for interaction and communication, educational materials, and an assessment component (Lei & Gupta, 2010).

Ownership and Copyright

The present questions of who owns the course content will not make any sense as a course will be viewed as a collective property and not an individual property. There are large organizations producing materials for learning and who focus on particular educational niches. The task of the instructors has become that of reviewing the materials and assigning the learners tasks in relation to the material (Castle & McGuire, 2010). There are some educational materials offered at a fee for use because of the quality and importance of the content contained. However, with the continued reproduction of the materials once purchased have further diluted the issue of ownership. Some government, charity organizations, and corporations continue to produce learning materials for free making online learning more productive. The increase in blogs offering learning information in the recent past have further made the online education a realizable dream for many institutions because they can refer students to specific sites for more information (Fish & Wickersham, 2009). 

Instructional Management Systems

These systems are in use and they are helping in the management of online education. The examples include Top class, Virtual U, and many others and they are operated by the instructor who customs them according the needs of each student. The systems have become the vital components in the use of PADs increasing the flexibility in the online education. There have been efforts to develop open standards for the IMS and they have had positive impacts. They have led to the proliferation of the system enabling the developers their versions such as compatible chat engines, backbone systems, and discussion arenas. Such developments have dropped the price for the systems making them affordable by many learners. The IMS have come as an improvement of the conferencing systems by including components that were missing in the conferencing systems (Yen & Liu, 2009).

Further, the IMS perform content filtering tasks as the learner tries to access a wide variety of information on the internet. The development of Surf Watch and Cyber Patrol systems have increased the safety of the information accessed by the minors. These have been attempts in response to the exposure to inappropriate content on the internet to the minors. However, the restrictions to the access of specific content is not only for the safety of the minors but also to reduce on destructions that comes with online learning. The developments have made the internet a safe place for learning than how it was before these magnificent developments (Castle & McGuire, 2010).

The Economics of Online Learning

The developments in online learning will make it very affordable because of the convenience and flexibilities that comes with online education. Eradicating the need for costly classrooms and movement costs is a major contributor to the lowering of the education cost in online education. As courses are being offered online and the number students increase the costs are reducing. The major point of consideration in determining the affordability of online education is by taking a look on the saving plan by students (Lei & Gupta, 2010).

On registering online the students do not have to travel to access education. The saving on the transport costs is significant if the school is located a significantly distant place. Another saving is that on which students will still be able to make earnings because of the time flexibilities offered by online education. The students can work and study at the same time. A combination of these two savings makes the online education cheap to the students (Yen & Liu, 2009).

V. Conclusion

Universities and colleges throughout the world have created programs that suit the needs for effective distance learning. The increase in the demand for online learning has made the management of these higher learning institutions draft strategic plans to include online learning in their curriculum. There has been rise of myths and misconceptions related to the challenges of teaching the learners using the online platform, the compensations and support needed to acquire qualified tutors, the needs of the online learners, and capability of the available technologies all create difficulties in achieving the vision and missions of the planners (Yen & Liu, 2009). There are a number of studies that have been conducted on the future of online education offering diverging views. Some scholars believe that the challenges that online education is facing are adequate to paralyze its success in future. Other studies show that with the increasing demand for online educations much is being done to solve the inherent problems. A major problem is the perception that online education is an inferior version of traditional learning but much is being done to solve it. Also, there is the issue of accreditation but the scholars establish that by offering service and quality online education institution will be able to acquire the necessary accreditation (Lei & Gupta, 2010).

With the growth in the capability of e-learning technology (electronic books, text messaging, blogs, simulation, podcasting, and wikis.) which are making online learning attainable, the confusion increases. The emergence of these technologies confront the administrators of the institutions and the instructors leading to need for better planning and budgeting. The confusion that arise in online learning has made student drop out of online classes in search for better, more engaging education experiences and richer sources. Given the developments in online education and the possible predictable developments, the future of online education can be said to be sophisticated (Mitchell, 2009). The need for personalized education will be realized in the near future by incorporating the technological capabilities to realize the goal. Students will focus on learning from different location according to their preferences rather than the traditional classroom. Course development will focus on meeting the needs of individuals rather that the collective needs. Education will become more affordable and accessible by many students. However, the issue on ownership and copyright is slowly diluting in relation to online educational materials because of the possibility of reproductions once purchased. It is not also easy to identify the owner of specific materials because it is a collaborative efforts of different groups. Students are finding online education a cheap and convenient way of achieving academic goals and the number of online education students are swelling overtime. Therefore, online education’s future is bright (Fish & Wickersham, 2009).

References

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Learning on demand: Online education in the United States, 2009. Babson Survey Research Group, Retrieved October from, http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/pdf/learningondemand.pdf

Allen, S. (2008), op. cit., and E. I. Allen and J. Seaman, Sizing the Opportunity: The Quality and Extent of Online Education in the United States, 2006 and 2007. Needham and Wellesley, Mass.: The Sloan Consortium.

Beqiri, M. S. & et al. (2010). Online course delivery: An empirical investigation of factors affecting student satisfaction. Journal of Education for Business 85, 95-100.

Bonk, C (2009).The Perfect E-Storm: Emerging Technologies, Enhanced Pedagogy, Enormous Learner Demand, and Erased Budgets (London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2004); and K.-J. Kim, C. J. Bonk, and T. Zeng, “Surveying the Future of Workplace E-Learning: The Rise of Blending, Interactivity, and Authentic Learning,” E-Learn Magazine

Bolliger, D. U., & Wasilik, O. (2007). Factors influencing faculty satisfaction with online teaching and learning in higher education. Distance Education 30(1), 114.

Castle, S. R., & McGuire, C. J. (2010). An analysis of student self-assessment of online, blended, and face-to-face learning environments: Implications for sustainable education delivery. International Education Studies 3(3), 36-40. 

Fish, W. W., & Wickersham, L. E. (2009). Best practices for online instructors: Reminders. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(3), 279-284.

Hollenbeck, C. R., & et al. (2009). Distance learning trends and benchmarks: Lessons from an online MBA program. Marketing Education Review, (15)2, 39-51.

Kim, K. J., & Bonk, C. J. (2006). The future of online teaching and learning in higher education: The survey says…. Educause Quarterly, 4, 22-30.

Larreamendy-Joerns, J., & Leinhardt, G. (2006). Going the distance with online education. Review of Educational Research 76(4), 567-605. Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://rer.sagepub.com/content/76/4/567

Lei, S. A., & Gupta, R. K. (2010). College distance education courses: Evaluating benefits and costs from institutional, faculty and students’ perspective. Distance Education, 616-631.

Li, Q., & Akins, M. (2005). Sixteen myths about online teaching and learning in higher education: Don’t believe everything you hear. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 49(4).

McClure, A. (2007). Distant, not absent. University Business, 42.

Mitchell, R. L. G. (2009). Online education and organizational change. Community College Review, 37(1), 81-101.

Orellana, A. (2007). Class size and interaction in online courses. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 7(3), 229-248.

Pastore, R., & Carr-Chellman, A. (2009). Motivations for residential students to participate in online courses. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(3), 263-277.

Poirier, S. (2010). A hybrid course design: The best of both educational worlds. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 28.

Rovai, A. P., &  Jordan, H. M. (2008). Blended learning and sense of community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 5(2), 1-13.

Tallent-Runnels, M. K., et al, (2007). Teaching courses online: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 6(1), 93-135. Retrieved September 22, 2010 from http://rer.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/76/1/93

Yen, H. J., & Liu, S. (2009). Learner autonomy as a predictor of course success and final grades in community college online courses. J. Educational Computing Research, 41(3), 347-367.

Young, S. (2006). Student views of effective online teaching in higher education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 20(2), 65-77.

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