Sociology is a discipline that study human origin, behaviors, culture, development, institution and organization. Sociologists deal with diverse matters such as religion, sexuality, deviance, family, and crime, differences in race and social class and gender issues. These areas are subjects of social and cultural structures. In addition, in this field it analyses and explains crucial matters in human lives, the society and the whole world. It plays an important role in investigating social causes and outcomes of things such as racial discrimination or prejudice. In this regard, sociologist’s performance depends on theories and methods that shape the lives of human beings. Moreover, sociologists are able to acquire powerful insights into social perspectives influencing behaviors of human beings. Consequently, sociologists provide a distinct and illuminating way of viewing and understanding social world where human beings live and influence their destiny. In addition, they look beyond the obvious and assumed perspectives to offer deeper, enlightening and challenging understanding of social environment.
Three paradigms can help to explain the concept of racism regarding lack of power and authority. These are symbolic interactionism, conflict and functionalism theory. Structural functionalism suggests that every societal perspective is interdependent just like an organ in a body. Every member of the society is important because he/she keeps the entire society healthy and stable. From this point of view, racism plays a crucial role in advancing authority and power. For instance, it helps to create solidarity among the Caucasians, hence, they promote their power in the society when whites were vast majority. On the other hand, the people of color were responsible of providing labor and payment of tax in order to create a stable government. According to structural interactionism, racism is viewed as a factor that contributed to social solidarity and stability. Therefore, racism provides an integrated society that offers a relatively smooth functioning. In addition, each race has a specific role to play - working together produced an unconscious fashion that achieves social equilibrium. In this regard, structural interactionists allow for race-related problems such as racial conflict and power inequalities. In addition, it allows for socially developed nature of race. Therefore, this perspective ignores the power and authority inequality that leads to a conflict and tension in different races.
Secondly, conflict theory argues that societal perspectives are products of conflict between different races. Therefore, conflict theorists suggest that racial discrimination is a perspective of that conflict. In this respect, since the whites have won their conflicts against the African Americans, they are justified to gain more power and authority. The racial discrimination is product of that conflict that helps the whites to maintain their power over the people such as Hispanics and African Americans . This theory als