RETRIBUTION VERSUS RESTORATION Essay paper sample - Essay Prowess






  • Retribution

Retribution alludes to the method of administering justice that treats proportionate punishment as the best remedy for wrongdoers. In the event that a pervasive person infringes upon the laws, it is only just that they give away something as a consequence. Unlike in revenge, this kind of retaliation is only focused on evils and other offenses, has inherent points of confinement, is not personal, derives no happiness at the affliction of others, and is based on procedural standards (Smartt, 2006).

In morals and justice, the saying “Let the remedy fit the wrongdoing” is a rule that implies that the seriousness of punishment for an offense or wrongdoing ought to be sensible and proportionate to the seriousness of the infraction. Customarily, philosophers of discipline have substantiated retributivism from utilitarianism. For utilitarians, punishing is forward-looking, legitimized by an indicated capacity to accomplish future social advantages, for example, reducing wrongdoing. According to retributionists, punishment is in reverse looking, legitimized by the wrongdoing that has been conferred and done to make up for the harm effectively done.

  • Restoration

Restoration theory on the other hand is a way to effect justice that concentrates on the position of the plaintiff and the defendant not forgetting the community from which they hail. The victims play a crucial part all the while. Meanwhile, the guilty parties are urged to assume liability for their activities, to make up for the wrongs they have done unto others through acts like apologizing, returning what they stole, or offering services to the community. Besides, this theory helps the wrongdoer to avoid offending others in the future (Haugen & Musser, 2009).

The methodology depends on a hypothesis of equity that considers wrongdoing and crime to be an offensive to an individual or community, as opposed to the state (Smartt, 2006). Remedial equity that cultivates dialogue between the offended and the wrongdoer has demonstrated the most astounding rates of casualty fulfillment and accountability from the guilty party.

Biblical Discussion

Spiritual retribution is a powerful punishment for man, a group of individuals, or everybody by God because of some activity. Numerous societies have a tale about how a god administered discipline on past possessors of their property, creating their fate.

An illustration of heavenly revenge is the story found in numerous societies around an incredible surge wiping out all of humankind, as portrayed in the  Book of Genesis (6:9-8:22), sparing only one divinely selected person (Smartt, 2006). According to the principal illustration it is Utnapishtim, while in the last case Noah. The  Qur’an points to a man called Noah who was appointed by the Lord to manufacture an ark additionally propose that only one person and his supporters were spared in an extraordinary surge (Merino, 2013).

In other illustrations, in the religious writings of Hebrews there is the scattering of the developers of the Babel Tower (Genesis 11:1-9), the annihilation of Sodom and Gomorrah as seen in (Genesis 18:20-21, 19:23-28) plus the Ten Plagues placed upon the antiquated Egyptians for aggrieving the Israelites. In other examples, in the mythology of Greece, Hera (a goddess) regularly got to be irritated with her spouse, Zeus, who would make helpless ladies pregnant, and would place divine requital on the kids conceived of such undertakings (Haugen & Musser, 2009). In a few variants of the myth, Medusa was transformed into her immense structure as awesome retaliation for her vanity; others viewed it as remedy for being assaulted by Poseidon. Much of the time, the Bible alludes to divine revenge as being postponed or “prized up” to the future.  The presence of God’s extraordinary works and retributive acts would relieve against confidence in the word of God (Smartt, 2006).

The main verse with respect to this issue can be seen in the Old Testament but it is also cited two times in the New Testament. In this, God said, “It is mine to retaliate for; I will reimburse. In due time their foot will slip; their day of calamity is close and their fate surges upon them” (Deuteronomy 32:35; Romans 12:19; Hebrews 10:30). In Deuteronomy, God is discussing the unyielding, defiant, heathen Israelites who rejected Him and brought about His anger with their insidiousness. He guaranteed to retaliate for Himself upon them in His own planning and as indicated by His own particular impeccable and unadulterated thought processes (Merino, 2013). The two sections in the New Testament concern the conduct of the human being, who is prohibited from usurping God’s power. Or maybe, we are to permit Him to rightly judge and spill out His perfect revenge against His adversrie as He may wish.

As opposed to what we do, God never takes retribution from debased thought processes. His retribution is with the end goal of rebuffing the individuals who have affronted and dismissed Him. We can, in any case, appeal to the Lord for Him to retaliate for Himself in flawlessness and sacredness against His adversaries and to vindicate the individuals who are abused by abhorrence (Schmalleger, 2008). The psalmist, In Psalms 94:1,   appeals to God for him to vindicate those who are noble, but not driven by the feeling of uncontrolled forgiveness, but rather out of only reprisal from the unceasing Judge whose reasoning and verdict are great. In situations when the guiltless endure and the evil seem to succeed, it is only upon God alone to intervene (Haugen & Musser, 2009). “The LORD is a jealous and avenging God; the LORD takes retaliation and is loaded with fury. The LORD takes retaliation on his adversaries and keeps up his fury against his foes” (Nahum 1:2).

Divine Restoration is the capacity of God to bring back or restore a person, group or country into its unique or right state and stunningly better than the first state. Where there is no reclamation, there is dissatisfaction, torment, distress and a wide range of misery which could make an individual or individuals live without testing the colossal favors of God for their lives. At the point when Divine Restoration comes, there will be fulfillment, happiness and festivity (Haugen & Musser, 2009).

In Joel 2: 25-27, God says “And I will restore to you the years that the beetle hath eaten, the cankerworm, and the caterpillar, and the palmerworm, my extraordinary armed force which I sent among you (Merino, 2013). What’s more, ye might eat in bounty, and be fulfilled, and applaud the name of the LORD your God that hath managed wondrously with you: and my kin should never be embarrassed. What’s more, ye might realize that I am amidst Israel, and that I am the LORD your God, and none else: and my kin should never be embarrassed”.

There might be some time in the past when you might have been living well but all of a sudden you fell into infection; some time ago you were doing admirably in your business yet abruptly your business begins disintegrating; some time ago you were doing great in academics then all of a sudden your progress got to be poor; in the past peace and rational soundness was in your family and in the lives of your youngsters, yet all of a sudden the kids began acting up; in the past you as a Christian was carrying on with a noble and devout life and concentrating on your Bible then all of a sudden you got to be cool in the Spirit and lost the faith; God puts us in all these states but restores us in the fullness of time (Merino, 2013).

There are numerous individuals before that had rebuilding of their belonging which was all of a sudden taken from them. For instance, Abraham as in Genesis 14:13-20, Job in the book of Job 42:12 and David in the book of 1 Samuel 30:1-19,; they all recuperated lost glory by huge amounts (Merino, 2013). How about we take these three individuals David, Abraham and Job as a contextual investigation; Now Abraham had an awesome recovery of his ownership which incorporates his relatives, their properties and wealth of his territory; Job had a celestial rebuilding of his family, wealth and riches, properties and all his ownership considerably more than what he had before; David likewise had divine reclamation of all his ownership and that of the general population of his land.

The above individuals had rebuilding only from God; were it not for God, they may have lived disappointed and lost everything to the hands of their foes. It is just God that can restore all you have lost in twofold for you (Merino, 2013). From this clarification, there are numerous regions of life where perfect restoration is required. It is divinely guaranteed that regardless of what you have lost, God will always restore them unto you.  Psalms 23:3 says that “He restoreth my spirit: he leadeth me in the ways of exemplary nature for his name’s purpose”.

Why Restoration!

Restorative justice is the one that I find as rhyming with my faith most. Restoration gives the offended the open chance for direct contribution during the time spent managing the occurrence that has afflicted them. They have the chance to express their emotions about the offense and its effect to the individual who has assaulted them, and they can as well give their perspectives about what is necessary to bring things back together (Jones, 2009). Restoration may hence offer the possibility of better addressing casualties’ needs and expanding casualty fulfillment with the criminal equity framework. Some plans even incorporate particular objectives of this nature which is in line with my Christian faith. Christianity calls for reconciliation that leaves the offender and the victim in love and harmony (Schmalleger, 2008).

The levels of fulfillment for victims connected with helpful restorative projects are said to come about because of the procedure better tending to the individual needs of the offended and the offender. These requirements include: pay; answers and data so casualties can recover a conviction that all is good; expression and acceptance of their experience of the offense and their enthusiastic reaction to it; and strengthening as far as a feeling of individual control over their surroundings and the determination of their own cases.

Restorative agreements take note of the capacity of the wrongdoer to make reparation, as Christianity advocates for. Consequently reparation orders taking after intercession might be for smaller sums than would some way or another be requested (Jones, 2009). The rate of completion may in this case have been an element of payment levels which wrongdoers could meet and the criteria by which guilty parties, offenses and the offended were chosen for intervention in any case. Under normal circumstances, court-requested compensation for adolescents is said to have low consistence rates since it is regularly seen to be in the way of a fine paid to the court as opposed to a commitment to the victim (Hale, 2005).

Strengths of Restoration over retribution

I find a lot of strengths in restoration as compared to retribution. To begin with, restoration treats the victim as crucial to the process of crime resolution. Retribution only places the victim on the periphery. This way, restoration engages both the offender and the victim making reconciliation stronger since both parties are brought together and all the cards placed on the table for each to know their correct position on the matter and what they ought to do going forward for closure to be found more easily (Jones, 2009).

In restoration, the offender is understood by his ability to make up for his wrongdoing. This method, therefore looks more into the probability of rehabilitating the offender more than castigating him and making him feel unworthy. It attempts to secure freedom for both the prisoner and the jailor. It takes the wrongdoer as one of their own in the community who can be assisted to change their ways and become normal again. In retribution, the wrongdoer is defined by his deficits. This theory, therefore views the offender as a person to be hated and vilified (Haugen & Musser, 2009). It does not offer a healthy platform on which the offender can be assisted.

Restoration views punishment alone as ineffective in redeeming wrongdoers and sees it as disruptive to harmony for the society. It advocates for means that keep a community in tact with good relations among members that guarantees peace for the community in question. Retributive justice, on the other hand, sees punishment as the only effective way to resolve issues arguing that it deters crime and changes behavior. Retribution has been found to widen rifts among members of societies than reate cohesion among them (Haugen & Musser, 2009).

Restoration treats crime as a burden primarily binding the whole community. Everybody in the community has a role to play in ensuring that their communities are a just place to be. This they shoud do through harmoniously establishing solutions for the problems binding their communities. As per retribution, crime should be controlled by the criminal justice system (Jones, 2009). This in itself is a big mistake because the system does not understand the matters at play and may not do it better than the community could do. In most societies today, such systems are riddled with many vices ranging from corruption, injustice, unfairness among others (Jones, 2009).

Theory most common in the 21st Century

Retribution is, by far, the major method of crime solution in the 21st century. Courts in the whole world are guided by laws whose verdicts include capital punishment, heavy fines, and corporal punishment among other methods that are more retributive than restorative. Indeed, no court in the whole modern world is known to try and rehabilitate the wrongdoers other than sentencing and fining them heavily before releasing them back to the society (Schmalleger, 2008). This way, the offenders end up becoming more vengeful and wild than they even were before being subjected to the law.

Retribution includes, by definition, the purposeful punishment of torment and is a type of violence. Discipline by the state requires defense as it includes violence. We regularly consider violence to be ethically and socially unsuitable; subsequently, retribution requires a reason. Criminal justice systems of the contemporary world should largely review their methods of crime resolution and incline it more to restoration than retribution if they are to realize any meaningful progress in transforming the current generation.


Hale, C. (2005). Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haugen, D. & Musser, S. (2009). Criminal justice. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Jones, S. (2009). Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Merino, N. (2013). Criminal justice. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal justice. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Smartt, U. (2006). Criminal justice. London: SAGE.