The history of human subjects research can be traced back in 1947, when the Nuremberg code was enacted in Germany. Apparently, this code was not a law, but served as the first time when the aspect of seeking informed consent was first mentioned. This code was passed as a way of regulating numerous researches that were being performed unethically in the concentration of camps of Germany. One year later, a declaration of Geneva which was referred as the physician`s oath was made and published by the world Medical Association. Every health physician all over the world was obliged to make this oath once he or she graduates with a medical degree or diploma. Moreover, in 1964, the Helsinki Report was compiled, and it entailed a hybrid of both the principles of the Declaration of Geneva and the Nuremberg Code. This report was compiled by the World Medical Association and was highly regarded as the cornerstone document of human research ethics. This was followed by the signing into law of the National Research Act in 1974, and a National Commission of the protection of human subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which started its operations in 1981. In 1978, the Belmont Report was compiled and entailed a number of regulations concerning the use of human subject (The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1978). This was followed by the enacting of the Common Rule in 1991, which is widely referred as the Belmont report of today, the Federal policy for the Protection of human subjects.
Protecting human subjects in research is a fundamental aspect in a number of ways. For example, it helps in maintaining and enhancing the dignity of human beings. Before the enactment of the law regulating the use of human subjects in research, there were a number of instances where most of the human beings had been misused by researchers, to such an extent that short and long term injuries are inflicted, or to the worst, death of the research participants. A good example is the Tuskegee study that aimed at establishing the prognosis and pathophysiology of syph