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What factors contributed to European economic growth between 950 and 1100
In the late 950s Europe started to recover from the effects of the fall and decline the Roman Empire. The threats from Magyars, Muslims, and Vikings were ebbing and Europe started to emerge as a dominant economic, military and political power. The ebbing of these effects drew Europe to a more solid path for economic development. The following are the events that caused the economic growth experience between 950 and 1100. There was an agricultural revolution that led to better methods of crop production. The effects of the agricultural revolution spread to the countries in Europe. The technological innovation in agriculture enabled the land owners and the peasants to get the best outcomes from their land (Coffin, et al, 170 – 300). The technological innovations in agriculture were complimented with new crop rotation systems that ensured the productivity of the land was maintained. Some of the significant innovations and technological improvements in Europe were horse collars, heavy-wheeled, and harnesses. There were also innovations of iron horseshoes, iron hand tools, tandem harness, and mills. These innovations led to better soil aeration increasing land productivity. The new technologies also saved on production costs increasing the profitability of agriculture. Also the innovations of better weapons increased the security reducing attacks from Viking, Muslim, and Hungarian (Coffin, et al, 170 – 300).
The climate in Europe improved during this period that greatly contributed to the agricultural yields. Farming and other and use practices were very productive increasing the trade in agricultural products. The increase in trade led to the establishing of trading centers which latter turned to commercial centers. The people of Europe significantly invested in livestock, tools and mills that increased the production of gods in Europe (Greif, 6-42). The increased trade as a result of increased of increased supply of products led to the growth of medieval cities and towns to support the increasing population. The growth in population in Europe during this period also contributed significantly to economic growth. The high numbers of people created a demand for the products increasing trade activities. The high demand further increased the demand for better means of productions leading to innovations and further technological growth (Greif, 6-42).
What is the relationship between economic growth and political power?
Political power influences the behavior of citizens as t gives the sense of direction. The political institutions take charge of resources of a country and help in directing them towards the significant sectors in the economy. By directing resources to the potential sectors within the economy, there can be high chances of economic development. In Europe, the political power directed resources to agriculture, technological innovations, and promoting trade. A political system that ensures the security of the citizens and offers the right support in economic activities leads to a high growth of economic developments (Greif, 6-42). Political fights hamper developments within a system because it leads to high chances of abusing the resources. A political system that supports technological developments by directing resources towards research and innovations increases efficiency. The political power that is in charge of a sovereign state ensures the safety of the citizens. When the people have a sense of security they increase investments leadings to a growth I medieval towns. Therefore, a good political system that promotes economic development leads to economic. There is a positive relationship between economic development and political power (Coffin, et al, 170 – 300).
How Feudalism contribute to the rise of “national monarchies” in England and France
Feudalism or military, economic, and political institutions devolved in the middle ages as an effort to bring order to the politically split world of medieval Europe. These institutions had powers practiced by private lords. There were several feudalism in Europe with different political leaders. These leaders wanted to rule their own institutions according their own preferences. In 1066 duke William succeeded English king and engaged in a battle with Harold taking power from him. He practiced a monarch rule where he had many political powers. Each feudalism had different beliefs and powers were decentralized leading to national monarchies in France and England (Coffin, et al, 170 – 300).
What role does the Crusading movement play in the reforming Church of the 11th Century?
In 1095 pope urban II in his famous proclamation at Clermont setout first crusade movement against the infidels inhibiting the holly lands. It is the start of new spiritual adventure among the European leaders. It was the beginning for the growth of papal powers. This movement placed monastery for the direct protection of papacy leading to special spiritual generosity (Greif, 6-42). The movement also increased the belief of the followers of the church. The movements led to the adoption of strict standards of conduct among the nonmonastic bishops. The influence of the empowered bishops during the movement significantly grew expanding the reform agendas. There was a great influence of the Christian theology, music, literature and art during these movements. Ag new written language (Cyrillic alphabet) was introduced during this period. However, the crusades hardened the sense of the holy war between the Muslims and the Christians (Coffin, et al, 170 – 300)
Coffin, Judith. Et al. western civilizations. Their history and culture. 17th Edition Study Space site. Norton and company Inc. 19. 170- 300, 2002.
Greif, Arnold. Institutions and the path to the modern economy: lessons from medieval trade. Cambridge: Cambridge. 142, 6-42. 2006.