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Standing by Words
In the book, “Standing by words,” the author talks about the language. According to him, no language statement is comprehensive and complete by itself, but for it to be complete, it has to meet some conditions. Precisely, for a statement to be complete it must precisely designate its object, the speaker must believe it, willing to act on it, be accountable for it and stand by it, as well as the relationship between the object, word and the speaker must be conventional (Wendell 25-26). For example, there are no boundaries on becoming a specialist if one is willing and determined. Textbook specialists write for individuals who are not specialists in language, but the individuals grow to become specialists in other fields. Students are able to contemplate the core themes of various authors that they read their books in the libraries, and not for them to become authors, but other specialists. This shows that author’s statements in his or her book are complete in terms of their language and fulfillment of the three conditions of complete statements, and this is the reason that the readers manage to read and contemplate the main themes.
Moreover, there is an indispensable connection between language and truth, and language and deeds. For example, it is ethical for authors to talk the truth than tell falsehood in order to communicate the precise situation, audience or purpose to their readers. Failure to do so, the confusion between public relations and public responsibility would occur (Wendell 30). Moreover, the words that the community uses, unconsciously learned and taught between generations live in the presence of their objects, and this marks the foundation and the root of their language (Wendell 33).
In addition, words tend to be like internal and external accounting and for a normal standard to be achieved, a balance between the two forms of accounting must be embraced. Internal accounting entails taking the internal financial management of an institution, while external accounting concerns the financial management of external parties. Precisely, one of the effective ways of achieving balance is through the external accounting admiring the internal. Precisely, two parties cannot communicate or relate to each other if one party is determined to exclude the other through language specialization (Wendell 33).
Consecutively, the inter-relationship should also prevail when more than two systems are involved. For example, an individual is part of the family, which is part of the community, and makes up the world. According to the author, when there is such interdependence, it means that when one system is affected, it affects the others as well. Moreover, the entire system tends to be safe when each system is controlled by the consecutively larger system (Wendell 46-47). For example, the family system should control the family members, and the community should control the family.
Moreover, according to the author, language has been negatively affected by technology. Through the development of the numerous technological aspects in the contemporary world, a culture of incorporating newly improvised terms has been on the increase, and this is contributing to the disintegration of language between the involved parties. Precisely, technological determinists have tyrannical attitudes whose assumptions cannot produce responsible or moral definitions of language the universe as a whole (Wendell 57). According to the author, individuals who speak out of the technological willingness cannot speak precisely, and this is due to the fact that what they talk about rarely exist (Wendell 60).
Wendell Berry. Standing by Words. Berkeley, New York. 1979.