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Radiations Exposure Effects
Radiation refers to waves, which are electromagnetic in nature and are strong enough to disintegrate the bonds holding together the smallest particle of an element or its molecular structure. This phenomenon results when materials that can undergo radioactivity are emitted into the habitat either unintentionally by human beings or by a natural event, and, as a result, people become exposed to these strong waves and the environment and property are made unfit for living (Miskel, 2006, p. 4).
Effects of exposure to radiation
The dangers of these strong waves, which are electromagnetic in nature to the organs, and tissues of the body depend on the quantity that is received and absorbed. However, the intensity of the undesired outcomes is directly dependent on the kind of radiation and reactivity of these diverse tissues and organs (Miskel, 2006, p. 7). This is due to the fact that it ranges from the short period outcomes to those experienced over a long period.
The undesirable effects experienced after a very short time include intoxication resulting from the radiation. This is characterized by a feeling of nausea, feebleness, vomiting, loss of hair in the body, burning sensation in the skin and reduced functioning of the body organs such as the liver and the kidney, which may later stop working (Pierce & Omelchenko, 2013, p. 13). Furthermore, there are those effects, which are experienced after a long period. They include alterations in the genetic components of a cell of a person, which results to cell makeup being distorted.
Another outcome that occurs after a long period is cancer. The disease involves unregulated growth of cells in the tissues and if untreated, it can be fatal. Various types of cancer that are prevalent are cancer of skin and reproductive parts. In addition, exposure to radiation can lead to growing cases of stillbirths since it can damage the brain of the growing fetus (Pierce & Omelchenko, 2013, p. 39). Congenital malformations are also the outcome of the exposure. Similarly, the rate of deaths by infants will project upwards as well as the weight of the children who are born will be significantly lowered.
Exposure to radioactive materials, which have been ejected into the surrounding, can also lead to emotional disturbance and depression. Emergence of fear and distrust by the citizens can in turn affect their health status since they cannot enjoy the psychological aspect of well-being. Roentgen equivalent in man (rem) refers to a unit utilized to calculate the amount of radiation and it is used to find the amounts of radiations, which are not harmful to the tissues of an individual (Pierce & Omelchenko, 2013, p. 81).
The amount of exposure to the robust electromagnetic waves influence the intensity of the outcome hence the higher the dosage, the greater the effect. A roentgen equivalent in man (rem) of between 50- 200 may result to illness while that of between 200-1000 may lead to adverse sickness, whereas any amount exceeding 1000rem will result to death. Radiation amounts related to Three Mile Island were found to be 1 millirem higher than normal base dosage and the people within the plant experienced this at the time of incident (Pierce & Omelchenko, 2013, p. 69). In Chernobyl incident, people near the plant prior to evacuation experienced a mean of 450mSv whereas a sum of 5200PBq of radioactivity was emitted.
Miskel, J. (2006). Disaster response and homeland security. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International.
Pierce, G., Mizin, V., & Omelchenko, A. (2013). Advanced bioactive compounds countering the effects of radiological, chemical and biological agents. Dordrecht: Springer.