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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a grave mental condition that has elicited inputs from many researchers over the past few decades. At first, it was thought to only occur among former combatants but in essence, this only opened up avenues for research as to how different experiences could be regarded as traumatic incidences among citizens. Scholars in this particular field have established that there are numerous and varied risk factors ranging from psychological problems to age of trauma as well as gender. This annotated bibliography sheds light on some of the research conducted over the years investigating the manner with which different risk factors associate with PTSD.
Brady, Kathleen T,M.D., PhD., & Back, S. E., PhD. (2012). Childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol dependence. Alcohol Research, 34(4), 408-413. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/docview/1430978756?accountid=8289
Psychologists believe that there is a strong interconnection between early childhood traumatic experiences and the development of a variety of mental health challenges with the most prominent one being alcohol dependency later in the victim’s life. Brady and Back (2017) present a review of the commonness of early childhood trauma relative to its resounding connection with alcohol dependency as well as posttraumatic stress disorder. The authors also delve into the aspect of compromised neurobiology in childhood as a result of stressors resulting in long lasting alterations. The article offers an encouraging conclusion suggesting that patients suffering alcohol dependency and receiving medication for such also appears to arrest symptoms of PTSD.
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748-766. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy1.apus.edu/10.1037//0022-006X.68.5.748
PTSD is a widely studied condition and different researchers have gained evidence on the same for many years. Brewin, Andrews and Valentine (2000) present a meta-analysis that seeks to ascertain what risk factors are more dominant given that the range of possible stressors is quite varied. From 14 distinctive PSTD risk factors three main groups were notable from the participants who also included army personnel. Factors like previous trauma, childhood adversity and education consistently predicted PTSD as compared to factors like age at trauma, race and gender though this was dependent of population specifics and study methods applied. The authors observed predictive causes in a uniform manner amongst participants reporting psychiatric history in the family, child hood abuse and individual psychiatric history.
Grant, D. M., Beck, J. G., Marques, L., Palyo, S. A., & Clapp, J. D. (2008). The structure of distress following trauma: Posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(3), 662. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/docview/214101651?accountid=8289
Given that there are other conditions other than PTSD that occur after trauma such as MDD and GAD. Grant, Beck, Marques, Palyo, and Clapp’s work observed the structure of the three conditions after a traumatic event to determine whether they arise as a result of general distress or from distinguishable emotional concurrent events. The outcome of this particular study supports that there are construct level analyses unique to PTSD though some factors such as Dysphoria are not limited to the disorder. This is information critical to availing treatment to patients after trauma exposure since it is disorder specific.
LaMotte, A. D., & Murphy, C. M. (2017). Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and dissociative experiences during men’s intimate partner violence perpetration. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(5), 567-574. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy1.apus.edu/10.1037/tra0000205
Based on the evidence that PTSD impacts genders differently and founded on the fact that men with the disorder tend to engage in intimate partner violence. LaMotte and Murphy (2017) present an article linking IPV among men with dissociative experiences during such episodes. The men with higher instances of post traumatic events and PTSD indicated dissociative experiences where they could not regain memory of a violent incident against a partner. The report underscored that the results therefore should not be applied to counter blame but rather towards enabling perpetrators gain better treatment in controlling it among those with PTSD.
Lommen, M. J., J., & Restifo, K. (2009). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Community Mental Health Journal, 45(6), 485-96. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy1.apus.edu/10.1007/s10597-009-9248-x
Psychologists concur that persons suffering major mental illnesses like schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia tend to exhibit PTSD symptoms. The purpose of Lommen and Restifo (2009) study involves ascertaining whether this is scientifically provable. Their objective included determining if populations of people with severe mental illnesses are also victims of under detected PTSD.
Orth, U., & Wieland, E. (2006). Anger, hostility, and posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 698. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/210625732?accountid=8289
Individuals who exhibit high anger and hostility experience diminished social functioning and low subjective wellbeing as well as often becoming perpetrators of cycles of violence which may lead to jail time. Orth and Wieland (2006) published an article delving into finding association between anger and hostility amongst adults with PTSD. Anger being an emotion while hostility is considered as an attitude suggests that the former is more studied in psychology. The two author’s attempt to find out if anger and hostility occur in tandem amongst PTSD patients or one of the two occurs amongst certain populations and the ability for anger control. The aim of the study was to essentially allow for design of more comprehensive treatment strategies for PTSD patients also exhibiting anger and hostility management problems.
Tolin, D. F., & Foa, E. B. (2006). Sex differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative review of 25 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 132(6), 959. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/203440524?accountid=8289
Given that research on PTSD is relatively new in comparison to other disorder types makes information on sex specificity vague. Previous studies provide varied conclusions which offer one of the bases for the work by Tolin and Foa (2006). This research is founded on questions seeking to understand which trauma affects female and male subjects differently. Their work is a quantitative research endeavor reviewing 25 years of study on the subject. The sensitivity and complexity of factors determining severity of PTSD amongst genders is proundly brought about by variations in severity of experiences due to trauma amongst females and males.
Wrenn, G. L., M.D., Wingo, Aliza P,M.D., M.S., Moore, R., PhD., Pelletier, T., B.S., Gutman, Alisa R,M.D., PhD., Bradley, B., PhD., & Ressler, Kerry J,M.D., PhD. (2011). The effect of resilience on posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed inner-city primary care patients. Journal of the National Medical Association, 103(7), 560-6. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/921729608?accountid=8289
Minorities are often underrepresented in numerous research studies. Wrenn, Wingo, Moore, Pelletier, Gutman, Bradley, and Ressler (2011) conducted a study within inner city limits and found three dominant factors as precursors to PTSD. These included childhood abuse, resilience and non-child abuse trauma. Participants who reported occurrence of two or more factors showed higher chances of suffering this disorder while those exhibiting resilience evidenced lesser probability of experiencing trauma. The unique setting of the study allowed the researchers to conclude that the findings offer an avenue for improved measurement and characterization of PTSD risks among inner city residents.