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Industrial or organizational psychology is a branch of science that studies individual behavior in the workplace. It identifies the psychological behavior, relation, and motivation of individuals in a working environment. Zerbe & Paulhus (2018) indicates that this field of psychology considers how individual operate under the group, persona and organizational settings. It identifies different ways through which workers communicate, relate to one another and the organization. Ideally, organizational psychology develops a relationship between individual differences and the impact of the work environment. In the current times, the United States of America worker works more hours when compared to their counterparts in Europe. Despite the high number of hours put into work, the work environment is cumbered with diversity. Workers are picked from different backgrounds affecting the relations built in the workplace. As demonstrated by Hersey, Blanchard & Johnson (2017), diversity becomes an opportunity for the general worker to apply their skill and feel effective in the workplace. The work environment has drawn a lot of research as a vital part of human interaction.
Drawing a worker’s wellbeing, Nadler & Tushman (2013) develops a model that analyzes work satisfaction. The study reinstates the ideology that works satisfaction is not only determined by pay grade; it is determined by other factors such as representation, equality, diversity, and communication. On the other hand, to shape the workplace culture, one has to study society, politics, economy, and individual personality. To this accord, Organizational psychology is accredited by researchers as an overlay of different disciplines in society. Robbins & Judge (2013) argue that Organizational psychology is determined and influenced by economic, social, and political sciences that shape individual understanding. The reference to the three sciences of life stands true, but it can be developed that the disciplines of organizational psychology are determined by anthropology, sociology, and psychology.
Psychological Determinant of Organizational Behavior
Organizational psychology as an application of skills and sets of knowledge on how people act within an organization is explained by Hersey et al. (2017) as founded by individual personality. As such, the psychological perspective of organizational behavior regards examining the lives of employees and how they affect their behavior within the workplace. As a science of behavior, psychological determinants include; sex, age, gender, beliefs, and other personal attributes that affect individual growth and development. Individual behavior is determined by their attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, job satisfaction, and work stress. At the same time, the work environment affects individual performance based on the organization’s design, workload, leadership effectiveness, policies, performance appraisal, motivation, and training. The interaction between individual personality and work structure helps determine the degree of work behavior exhibited by an individual worker.
Sociology deviates from psychological analysis, and it evaluates the relation of people within a given environment. Nadler & Tushman (2013) indicate that the study’s sociological and socio-psychological field evaluates the group dynamics about the work structure. Therefore, it focuses on group interactions, group behaviors, organizational culture, power, conflict, and how order is maintained within the working environment. The best organizations demonstrate an apt ability in solving conflict and resolving cases of inequity. However, this is achieved through an interaction of the social dynamics. It depends on the organizational ability to develop a conducive culture that fosters communication, professionalism, and employee growth. Sociological structures study the interaction of people based on their colleagues. On the other hand, socio-psychological structures determine the influence of a single individual or the workplace on people.
As the discipline, it studies society to learn about human cultures, environments, and activities. It develops a fundamental difference between individuals, their attitudes, and perception of the workplace. Hersey et al., (2017) studies an organization and emphasizes that it is a purpose-driven social group sharing a set of belief, culture, and values. In as much as the organization sets its own fundamental and guiding principle, it leads to a conflict with the individual values and cultures presented by the employees. The anthropological determinants of organizational behavior hypothesize how individuals function in a set of conditions or a new environment.
Models of Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior highlights the manner through which individuals operate in a given workplace. The workplace as the environment is defined from cultures and values that interact with individual personalities, beliefs, and values. Robbins & Judge (2013) indicate that while organizational behavior helps to place employees and predict their behaviors, the models of Organization behavior helps to highlight the organizational characteristic that determines individual responses. As such, the organizational model formulates the basis through which individuals perform their organizational objectives. Therefore, Nadler & Tushman (201referred the organizational models 3) include the autocratic, custodial, supportive, collegial, and system model.
The autocratic model is one of the oldest organizational models stemming from the industrial revolution. Its main emphasis is vested in power. It allows the owners and managers to formulate and dictate instructions while employees are liable to follow the instructions. Zerbe & Paulhus (2018) adds that the rule of power is guided by the owners who give dictatorial commands to the subordinates. In turn, the employees are predicted to behave according to the stipulated laws and policies. Osland, Devine & Turner (2015) suggest that the employees’ psychological outcome is vested on the power command that seeks to hire, inspire, and fire. The structured culture and environment reduce the flexibility of employees, in turn lowering performance. On the contrary, Robbins & Judge (2013) establishes that as employees are provided with strict instruction, it motivates some to develop a higher performance that matches organizational objectives. The theoretical model by Hersey et al. (2017) states that when employees receive less attention, they tend to lower down their performance. As a result, the theory develops the hypothesis and supports the autocratic model, suggesting that force, fear, and threats help solstice results from employees.
The custodial model centers its behavioral approach on the security of employees. It ascertains that as employees are provided with security of employment, they become encouraged to work. A successful custodial model of organizational behavior has been explained by Osland et al. (2015) to provide the employees with economic and social incentives. The idea is that employee relations and satisfaction determine their productivity. For instance, provide an employee with health insurance, organizational vehicle, financial packages, and other forms of remunerations encourages the organization to work towards performances. The custodial approach induces employees to show their loyalty and dependence on the organization.
Unlike the two models of organizational behavior, a supportive model emphasizes employee self-motivation by providing a conducive workplace. The supportive workplace regards providing different opportunities that stimulate productivity and leadership within the workplace (Nadler & Tushman, 2013). The discerning factor with the supportive model indicates that the organization helps to stimulate individual performance by providing support and economic benefits.
The collegial model is an extension of the supportive model; however, in this case, there are no considerate distinctions among the employees. It relieves the employees from ranks; instead, it focuses on teamwork where individuals have to participate in equal measure. The work of the team leaders is to coach and support the teamwork (Osland et al., 2015). The success of the collegial model is to foster a sense of partnership, allowing the employees to have a purpose and importance in the work environment. The manager is oriented towards the team’s performance while the team is focused on responsibility towards one another. The output of the team is dependent on the values set by the coordination.
The System Model
The system model is one of the widely adopted models in the 21st-century workplace. Zerbe & Paulhus (2018) explained that it is fostered from rigorous research indicating that employees need more than the benefits of employment and the hours of work invested. The systems model regards that the work needs to be ethical, considerate, and respectful to the diversity of employees. As such, the owner and the managers have to show compassion, care, and support to the diversity observed both in society and within the workplace. The organization provides a positive work culture where the employees feel at ease working with family values. As the managers foster a productive work environment through transparency and authenticity, they are emotionally and psychologically stimulated to be responsible for their actions.
Reflection on the Theory and Model of Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior emphasizes employees’ behavior about the work environment (Robbins & Judge, 2013). It helps to predict work culture and behavior because employees are directed to react to different work policies. However, as pointed in the models of organizational behavior, the fascinating concept is embodied on the foundation that the employer and manager determine the reaction and personality of the employee. Based on the foundation by Nadler & Tushman (2013), it reinstates that organizational behavior is a function of the owner or the organization to foster a culture of understanding and professionalism. The employer is responsible for hiring the right talents within the organization; this step continues as the organization helps foster behavior by encouraging responsibility (Hersey et al., 2017). Therefore, the models of organizational behavior have all been discussed based on the changing needs and patterns of employment. To assume that a single model is best will be wrong as the anthropological determinant of behavior is observed to be changing and diverse with different groups of employees.
Predictability of employee behavior is vested under the principle of unity, collaboration, and teamwork. As an organization successfully implements personal development policies, the employees are encouraged to improve their performance (Osland et al., 2015). For instance, the custodial model emphasizes benefits and incentives. It reinstates the foundations that employees are motivated to perform better when they feel safe with their employment. The same effect is realized with the systems model that encourages equity within the organization. Any of the stated models can be modified and structured to suit different societal needs. Through the years of employment, it can be determined that social and anthropological conditions change, affecting the perception and attitudes of employees. Understanding human behavior is a collective approach that seeks to study different motivations and straining factors of growth.
Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H., & Johnson, D. E. (2017). Management of organizational behavior (Vol. 9). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall.
Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (2013). A model for diagnosing organizational behavior. Organizational Dynamics, 9(2), 35-51.
Osland, J., Devine, K., & Turner, M. (2015). Organizational behavior. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 1-5.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2013). Organizational behavior (Vol. 4). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Zerbe, W. J., & Paulhus, D. L. (2018). Socially desirable responding in organizational behavior: A reconception. Academy of Management Review, 12(2), 250-264.
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