Nationalism or Imperialism - Essay Prowess

Nationalism or Imperialism

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Question 1:

·         suggest the critical impact that the principles of sovereignty can have when Nationalism or Imperialism exists in general. Provide a rationale for your response.

·         Take a position on the role of the U.S. has occupied in addressing terrorism in social and economic sectors during the invasions of Iraq. Support your position with a discussion of the attributes of war (e.g., manpower, weaponry, rules of engagement) in which terrorism played a part.  

Question 2:

·         examine the overall roles of the Non-State participants within a current event that requires a foreign policy on terrorism to be developed. Provide a rationale for your response.

·         Infer whether Non-State participants create either sources of power or new constraints when developing effective and acceptable approaches to solve international, political, and economic problems. Provide at least two (2) examples to support your rationale.

Reading material:

The Historical Evolution of International Politics

This week we will examine the history of international politics, from the early Greek city-states through the 2008 global economic crisis. Many histories of international politics begin with a discussion of the Greek city-states because they are an early example of what later came to be viewed as a system of independent states.

Today’s modern state system is often called the Westphalian system, after the Treaty of Westphalia, signed in 1648, ending the thirty Years’ War. The Treaty of Westphalia established a number of principles that still define the system today. First, it recognized the existence of sovereign states. Second, it defined the rights of sovereign states. The main actor in this system is the state, and the key principle is sovereignty. Recognition is also very important in this system, which is also called a state system.

The state system exists in an anarchic world that is characterized by the balance of power, which means that no single state was powerful enough to defeat the others.

In the nineteenth century, Napoleon Bonaparte attempted to expand French influence across Europe and beyond in a series of wars. The Napoleonic wars led to the Concert of Europe where the four powers agreed to work together to preserve the status quo in European politics.

Imperialism and colonialism characterized much of the nineteenth century. The doctrines of nationalism, self-determination, and democracy also had profound effects. Nationalism helped spur a new wave of colonialism in the second half of the nineteenth century.

By the beginning of the twentieth century there was intense competition among the European powers. The decline of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires had left Europe in a delicate balance between two great alliances—the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. This delicate balance was destroyed with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. World War I began soon after. The Treaty of Versailles ended World War I, and it also created the League of Nations.

Only 21 years later, in 1939, World War II began, and it was even more brutal than World War I. World leaders had attempted to use collective security to prevent another world war, but it failed for a number of reasons, including the U.S. policy of isolationism. Prior to World War II, the British attempted to appease Germany and prevent war at a conference in Munich in 1938. The attempt at appeasement failed, and World War II began with Hitler’s attack on Poland, France, and the United Kingdom.

World War II was followed by the Cold War, a period of intense conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union without any actual “hot” war. During the Cold War, the period of highest tension culminated in the Cuban Missile Crisis. After the crisis, both sides agreed to take steps to reduce the chances of such a crisis in the future.

World War II and the Cold War also demonstrated the importance of international economic collaboration. The Bretton Woods system was created to foster expanded international trade in order to increase prosperity. It was also founded to provide stability in the international financial system, as well as promote economic development.

Decolonization followed World War II as many colonial relationships ended due to weakened colonial powers and the increasing importance of the doctrine of self-determination. Poverty was the major problem in most of these countries.

After World War II, the world also saw an increase in the importance of nonstate actors, including multinational corporations, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations.

The Cold War ended in 1991, and it was followed by an increased willingness to tackle global problems through international collaboration. This period saw some successes, as nonstate actors took on a more significant role in the world.

The events of September 11, 2001 brought a common purpose and common threat, but there was disagreement over the best means of combating terrorism quickly. New challenges also appeared, like the outbreak of H1N1 influenza, but there were also bright spots, like the expansion of the European Union. Amidst these highs and lows, the global economic crisis of 2008 brought up new questions and arguments about the free market and global economic policy