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Media Reporting Factors Essay


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Media Reporting Factors Essay

Factors That Shape What is reported in the Media

There are variety of reasons that determines what is reported in the media and a news story. All news offers facts in delivery of information but their organizations differentiate how the news is reported. Every journalist receives professional training and value but their decisions affect news production (Bucy, Erik, and Lance, 3). In this regard, they make decision on whether to cover an event or issue, from whom or where to source information and what to include or omit in the story. Moreover, they determine approaches to use while communicating information (Denton, Robert, Jim, and Robert, 23). Each of these decisions shapes a news story.

The decisions made by journalists are influenced by the context of specific news and listeners. Besides, production of news is performed under special legal, economic, political and geographical factors (Hammersley, 23). Therefore, because each journalist operates under different circumstances, news articles on similar issue are likely to be different. In addition, the differences in reporting news article usually show varying perspectives on the news. Furthermore, news reporting is determined by the point of view of the reporter (Bucy, Erik, and Lance, 3). In this regard, different reporters cover a similar issue or event depending on their way of understanding. Moreover, some news may receive coverage in one part of the world over the other because of the differences in context of events (Kuypers, 4).

The reporter’s central and important aspect of an issue determines how news is produced. For instance, an article can address the same issue but various journalists will cover them differently. Therefore, journalists will conduct interviews to certain people and ask them distinct questions, which reflect perspective focused on the issue (Denton, Robert, Jim, and Robert, 25).

It is crucial for journalist to analyze where the news were produced. For instance, in case of international news there is need to understand the source of information. This increases the understanding of perspectives that the journalists gets in the news (Hammersley, 45). In this respect, the geographical understanding of the news reflects different perspective for every journalist.

When covering news story, a journalist must consider the target audience. Therefore, they determine the approach of telling a story to either, environmentalists, businesspersons or other special groups. The journalist also determines the political factors of the news such as government limitations that influence the production of some news. Some governments have direct control over journalist’s activity (Bucy, Erik, and Lance, 7). For instance, some regimes attack or harass journalists who cover stories that are out of favor with the authority.

In addition, the government regulations require media registration in order to monitor journalist activity (Denton, Robert, Jim, and Robert, 27). Furthermore, when covering specific news a journalist needs to be aware of special laws that outlaw government criticism. Governments tend to control some form of information that reaches the citizens in order to influence decisions (Bucy, Erik, and Lance, 13). Therefore, a news anchor considers the extent of government control in official government news.

The role of advertising influences how news is being reported. For instance, some advertising firm may sponsor a certain news program or paper. Consequently, the journalists may feel shy to report how such firms undermine their workers (Hammersley, 56). Some large companies are increasingly buying media firms in order to increase their profits and control what is reported (Webster, James, Patricia, and Lawrence, 45). Journalist fear losing their jobs if they report or publish articles that have huge impact on their firm.

Media’s Techniques for Shaping the Political Agenda

Using news coverage, media have various techniques that shape the political agenda in different events. Shaping political agenda involves promoting certain political ideologies and policies in order to gain public support (Hammersley, 89). Media concentrate on small number of issues that influences the public perception on such issues as more important than others do. According to Donald Kinder, media, especially television, influences what voters believe to be important (Denton, Robert, Jim, and Robert, 76). They pay attention to some national, regional or state problems and ignore others. Therefore, media use the technique of focusing on a problem that changes the public priorities and changes again if media tunes to new issues. For instance, in 1968, Shaw Donald and McComs Maxwell evaluated the agenda-setting capacity of media during a presidential election (Holtz-Bacha, Christina, and Jesper, 58). They identified that media are carrier of political information, which influences the perception in a particular candidate or a political party.

Shaw and McCombs suggest that the most important media technique in setting political agenda is creating and organizing mentally order for the public (Hammersley, 103). In this respect media do not identify the right politician but helps the public to choose suitable politician. Media is always biased which structure the perceptions of voters on various political reality (Denton, Robert, Jim, and Robert, 87). By doing so they determine which issues are of interest to the public or that can win public support.

White Theodore notes that the most important media technique in setting political agenda is by influencing what people will talk about and think (Kuypers, 15). The power of this technique rely on the fact that media plays in an important role in creating awareness and educating (Hammersley, 107). By choosing and showing what candidates say during political campaigns viewers understands the agenda of the candidate and campaign.

Importance of Framing and Priming

Media framing involves how it communicates, organize and perceive theoretical and concepts perspectives on political candidates, society and political parties about reality. Priming, on the other hand, is subconscious human memory that helps to identify objects and words. Effects of framing can be both positive and negative depending on information presented and the audience (Bucy, Erik, and Lance, 18). Media framing is crucial in discussion of political agenda setting. Media can carry out framing by inventing on style of narration and including subtopics strategically to assist in news narration.

In addition, it can exclude or include specific details in the news. Media framing helps the public to internalize and comprehend in a careful way (Hammersley, 107). Framing and priming are important because by incorporating their elements, media manipulate individual’s perception and popular opinion. Framing helps to evoke emotions about people. Moreover, it is crucial for media to use priming because it helps to stimulate the process of identification of political candidates and their ideas (Webster, James, Patricia, and Lawrence, 45). They also use priming to identify the ideological differences between candidates in order to enhance public understanding (Holtz-Bacha, Christina, and Jesper, 60).  Finally, priming plays a powerful role in reflecting the public opinion and mindset.

Work cited

Bucy, Erik P, and R. Lance Holbert. Sourcebook For Political Communication Research. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2014. Print.

Denton, Robert E, Jim A Kuypers, and Robert E Denton. Politics And Communication In America. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2008. Print.

Hammersley, Martyn. Media Bias In Reporting Social Research?. London: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Holtz-Bacha, Christina, and Jesper Strömbäck. Opinion Polls And The Media. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Print.

Kuypers, Jim A. Press Bias And Politics. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002. Print.

Webster, James, Patricia Phalen, and Lawrence Lichty. Ratings Analysis. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2013. Print.