Learning Disabilities of American Children Sample essay
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In a 3-page paper, written in APA format using proper spelling/grammar, research the topic of learning disabilities of American children and address the following: When is a child’s communication considered delayed? Please include stages of development regarding communication with examples. What are speech disorders and how are they characterized? What are language disorders? How does they affect language development and education? How does a speech language pathologist help children with communication disorders?
Learning Disabilities of American Children
According to the Learning Disabilities Association of America, learning disabilities form the largest group of disabilities under the disability category recognized under the Special Education Act. The association states that one in every five children in the US experience learning and attention issues (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2017). It is essential to address the needs of children with disabilities to ensure that they receive the support and instructions required to foster their success in education and life.
Delays in Child Communication
Communication delays occur when children do not meet the language developmental milestones for their ages. A child is thus considered to have delayed communication in their typical ages and has not reached the expected language. Children develop at different rates, but their inability to do certain things, such as communication at specific periods, is an indication of communication delays (Boone, 2018). Learning children’s communication is essential as it helps parents and caregivers to know what to do when concerns on communication delays arise for early interventions. There are various stages of development in communication. At an early age, children can communicate without speaking by crying smiling and responses, which help in the identification of their needs. During their first years, most babies can identify the origin of a sound, respond to their name, wave goodbye, incoherent babbling, pointing to objects out of reach and say at least one word. As they grow, children can name objects, follow commands, and use gestures and words to communicate (Fletcher et al., 2018). The use of phrases, being understood by others, and fluency in the number of words is a crucial stage in the development of communication. Delayed communication is frequent in children, and it can be temporary and resolve on its own or through family help. In cases of communication delays, children work with trained professionals, language, or speech therapists to assist children in learning how to communicate.
Communication disorders in children include speech and language disorders. Speech and language disorders are the problems encountered in communication and areas of oral motor functions. The delays and disorders range from simple and temporal communication hitches in sound substitution to more complex issues such as the inability to understand or use language (Boone, 2018). Language disorders may also fail to use the oral-motor mechanism, which aids functional speech and language disorders. Speech and language disorders are mainly caused by brain injury, mental retardation, hearing loss, neurological disorders, and other physical impairments such as ad cleft lip or palate. In the United States, it is estimated that speech and language communication disorders affect one person out of ten.
Speech is an essential aspect of child development as it enhances verbal expression of language and articulation information of words and sounds. Children with speech disorders have difficulty in the production of sound during a speech, flow of speech, fluency, voice, and resonance. Therefore, children with a speech disorder will be unable to say speech sounds in words, making them sound hard to understand. The cause of speech disorder in children is unknown (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2017). Still, it is associated with other health concerns: problems with teeth, hearing loss, difficulty controlling mouth movements, or cleft palate.
The following characterizes children with speech disorders
- Lack of babble with constant sounds by the age of nine months.
- Inaudible and challenging to understand speech at the age of 3
- Speech disorders also incorporate voice disorders, resonance, and fluency disorders.
- Voice disorders are shown by harsh raspy hoarse and sudden changes in pitch.
- The child also experiences frequent loss of voice, which makes it hard to speak.
- Children may experience blockage of sound in the mouth, nose, and throat, which also characterizes speech disorder making the child’s voice muffled or quiet (Fletcher et al., 2018).
- Stuttering also describes speech disorder where children have abnormal repetitions, prolongations, or blocks in their flow of speech.
- As a result, children exhibit tension during their speeches and avoiding speaking due to fear of stuttering.
Language is an essential aspect of child development. Language disorders cause impairment in children able to understand and use words verbally, nonverbally, and in context. Children use words to express themselves, share their opinions, and get what they want. Children with language disorders have problems understanding, talking, reading, and writing. A language disorder is characterized by the improper use of words and meanings. For example, a child may hear or see a name but cannot understand its meaning (Fletcher et al., 2018). As a result, the child will experience difficulties getting others to understand what they are trying to communicate.
Language disorders affect language development through hindrances. Children experience the inabilities to express ideas, have inappropriate grammatical patterns, reduce vocabularies, and fail to follow directions. As a result, children have various language learning disabilities and developmental language delays.
Communication disorders have the potential to isolate children from social surroundings and also affect education. Delays in speech and language which develop to become disorders cause difficulties in learning. Language disorders hinder learning of vocabulary, reading, writing and understanding, and language (Boone, 2018). Communication is a significant component in the lives of children and adults. It facilitates the way people learn about the world and how they utilize knowledge and skills and interact with others. Therefore, it is critical to find effective strategies that will enhance children’s transition from childhood to school, employment, and adult life.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2017). Speech and language disorders and diseases.
Boone, D. R. (2018). Trouble talking: The realities of communication, language, and speech disorders. Rowman & Littlefield.
Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2018). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. Guilford Publications.
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