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Introduction to Management Essay

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Introduction

The report aims to analyse the business management structure, and the functions. Management refers to a process that involves the administration and control of all affairs that are carried out in an organization. It deals with creating and maintaining a business environment that is healthy (Magretta, 2012).

The Structure of Management and Business Functions

Organisational structure refers to a system that determines how various activities are conducted to be able to achieve the set organisational goals. The specific activities may be responsibilities, rules and roles in the organization. The structure in organisations is also the determinant of how information is transferred from one department to another in a company. For example, the flow of information in an organization may be from top to bottom or it may involve the distribution of the power of making decisions amidst different levels that exist in the organization. The main purpose of an organization having a structure is to enable it to stay focused and maintained its efficiency in its operations (Maduenyi et al., 2015).

One of the management theories is the classical theory of management which considers compensation as the main motivator for employees’ effectiveness. It encourages managers to reward high performers through bonuses and wages. We also have the behavioural theory of management which encourages management practices and methods that are people-oriented. According to this theory, the centre of focus for the management needs to be the meeting of the employees’ interpersonal needs and understanding the human behaviour of the employees. Managers who adopt this theory ensures that the work atmosphere is collaborative to motivate teamwork. Also, there is the modern theory of management which focuses on incorporating the complexities and constant changes in organisations with traditional and human theories. It also considers the potential of technology and its effects on businesses. Managers who adopt the use of this theory focus on measuring performance using statistics and ensures that there is cooperation across various functions in the organization (Miller et al.,2015).

Types of Organisational Structures

Functional Structure

Organisations using the functional structure are divided on the basis of their functional areas. The divisions depend on specialty areas which may include operations, IT, finance and marketing. The structure has an advantage as it allows operational efficiency. The disadvantages of this structure include lack of proper communication, thus less innovation and flexibility.

Divisional Structure

The structure characterized by division on the basis of functions in an organization corresponding with geographies or products. Advantages of this structure include affording an organisation greater flexibility in operations. Its disadvantages include inefficiency that arise due to separation of the specialized functions.

Matrix Structure

This structure is characterized by grouping individuals by two perspectives of operation. Using this structure has an advantage as it promotes specialization thus increasing knowledge. It has a disadvantage as it increases complexity in the organisation’s command chain.

Flat Structure

A flat structure has fewer layers of management and its span of management is wider. It has an advantage as it enables better communication thus more responsibility and autonomy. Its disadvantages include lack of opportunities for progression and increased work for managers (Anumba et al., 2002).

Business Functions

They refer to activities that an enterprise carries out which include the support functions, and the core functions of the business. The core functions are the activities involved in the direct production of services and goods whereas the support functions are the other activities that involve taking the final products to the market and selling them.

Marketing Function

The marketing department collaborates with the production department to help in planning for the research needed, and the development of products to satisfy the needs of the customers. The department is better placed to know the design and quality of the products that the customers desire. The marketers also work with production to ensure that the order volume generated meets the scheduled time for the delivery of the products. It is the responsibility of marketers to ensure that products are available in the market as fast as possible. These products cannot be available as fast if the production department does not ensure that the production is also done on time. Therefore, for the marketing department to be efficient it needs to liaise effectively with production. The team also works with the finance department to set up a budget that is adequate to ensure that all the needs of the department that involve distribution, promotion, and research are met. The department needs to understand the financial capabilities of the organization as it seeks funds to carry out its activities. As the department focuses on the volume of sales and the opportunities in the market it will need to work together with finance to understand the extent to which it can go as per its budget allocation. The marketing department also works with the human resource management in ensuring that the department has enough staff to be able to carry out its functions successfully. Also, the two departments work together to ensure that the staff working in the department possess the appropriate qualification and skills that are required to carry out their tasks effectively. The department needs to have staff who can carry out research activities and coming up with new ideas for the products. They also need to have the ability to meet the production targets that have been set. Besides it is in the interest of the sales department to have a sales team that is competent and ambitious. The HR department has the mandate of recruiting all the staff in the organization thus the marketing department needs to work with HR to be able to get the right staff (Rust et al., 2010).

Management Functions

Henry Fayol’s Five Functions of Management

Planning

This calls on the managers to ensure that they have plans for conditions that may affect an organization in the future, as well as put strategic objectives in place to guarantee that future goals are achieved.

Organising

This involves ensuring that the organisation’s workforce is organized in a structure and manner that is efficient and ensuring the organisation’s activities are aligned. This function also requires that managers recruit and train people who are right for the job being given (Krutyakova and Anyushenkova,2018).

Commanding

This function requires managers to ensure that they supervise their subordinates as they attend to their daily duties, and be an inspiration to the staff to achieve the goals that are set by the company. Their command should be in line with the policies of the company. The standards set by the company should also be employed by the managers while dealing with the subordinates.

Coordinating

Managers are required to ensure that there is harmony between activities and procedures of the organization, whereby each unit enrich and complement the other.

Controlling

The managers have to control the activities of the company to ensure that they align with the general objectives and policies of the company. Managers are supposed to be observers and reporters of deviation from organisations objectives and plans (Krutyakova and Anyushenkova,2018).

Interrelation of the Functions of Management

All the functions of management have some level of relationship with each other. Each complements the other to make management roles easier and more effective. Planning prepares the ground for the organization of the resources that are needed. Thus, a manager cannot play his or her role in organizing before the plans are laid down. Also, there is an interrelation between planning and controlling as the control process is decided by planning. The managers use the function of planning to come up with the course. They ensure that no deviations occur from the set course by controlling the activities that are carried out in the organisation. In case there is any deviation they respond by introducing an action that takes them back to the intended course (Krutyakova and Anyushenkova,2018).

HR And Talent Management

Role and Responsibilities of HR

HR deals with the recruitment of suitable candidates as per the organisations staffing needs. It is the responsibility of HR to ensure that these needs are met by consulting the stakeholders, conducting a market analysis and ensuring that budgets are managed. The department needs to attract and present the right candidates for a particular job. Another role of HR is the arrangement of interviews to identify suitable candidates, the coordination of efforts that are involved in hiring, and ensuring successful navigation of the hiring process. HR is also tasked with the processing of the organisation’s payroll which involves the calculation of taxes, reimbursement of expenses, and addition of benefits. Besides, HR is responsible for carrying out the disciplinary actions for the staff in a company. The department is supposed to ensure that the disciplinary actions are carried out appropriately to avoid loss of employees that are valuable to the organization, poor reputation for the company and litigations that may be costly to the organization. The department is also tasked with updating policies that relate to the employees. The department is also charged with maintaining the records of employees in the organization which are helpful as they assist the company in identifying the existing skill gaps (Farndale et al., 2011).

Talent Management

It refers to an ongoing process that entails attraction and retention of employees whose quality is considered to be high, the development of the employee’s skills, and continuous efforts to motivate employees to ensure that they give their best in terms of performance. It is a major need in an organisation as it ensures the creation of a workforce that is motivated and which stays with the organisation for longer periods. It is important due to its capitalizing on the company’s employees thus maximizing their value which is of great importance to the company (Farndale et al., 2011).

Organisational Culture

It refers to values, expectations, philosophy as well as experiences that inform and guide the behaviour of members in an organisation. One type of organisational culture is the clan culture which is focused on people and equates the organisation with a big family and encourages a collaborative work environment. There is also the adhocracy culture which focuses on innovation. It encourages individual employees to focus on being innovative and coming up with new ideas which bring success to the organisation and sets it apart from others. Also, there is the market culture whose main priority is on the profitability of the business. The focus is on the success that is external as opposed to internal satisfaction of the company employees. Moreover, there is the hierarchy culture that encourages the adherence to a command chain that is clear, and the separation of the leadership and the employees in a company. The way that things are done in the company is specified by this culture. A strong culture in organisations makes things clear for employees in terms of the expectations that a company has from them thus they develop a sense of wellbeing and can focus on their work hence better performance. On the other hand, a weak culture creates confusion thus a lack of unity in an organisation which leads to low productivity (Ramachandran et al., 2011).

Conclusion

The functions and skills of management are key attributes to the making or breaking of an organisation. It is important to adopt the best strategies to ensure that the functions are effective and drives an organisation in the best direction. It is also critical to adopt the best culture that fits the organisation.

References

Anumba, C.J., Baugh, C. and Khalfan, M.M., 2002. Organisational structures to support concurrent engineering in construction. Industrial management & data systems.

Farndale, E., Scullion, H. and Sparrow, P., 2010. The role of the corporate HR function in global talent management. Journal of world business, 45(2), pp.161-168.

Krutyakova, M.S. and Anyushenkova, O.N., 2018. Changing functions of management at the present stage. Наука и образование: новое время, (5), pp.176-180.

Maduenyi, S., Oke, A.O., Fadeyi, O. and Ajagbe, A.M., 2015. Impact of organisational structure on organisational performance.

Magretta, J., 2012. What management is. Simon and Schuster.

Miller, K.D. and Tsang, E.W., 2011. Testing management theories: Critical realist philosophy and research methods. Strategic management journal, 32(2), pp.139-158.

Ramachandran, S.D., Chong, S.C. and Ismail, H., 2011. Organisational culture. International Journal of Educational Management.

Rust, R.T., Moorman, C. and Bhalla, G., 2010. Rethinking marketing. Harvard business review, 88(1/2), pp.94-101.

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