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Information Technology Management Literature review


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Information Technology Management Literature review BBA:

Over the past years, Information technology has gained strategic significance for organizations globally. Researchers show that organizations are relying on Information technology professionals who have the knowledge as well as skills to manage new technologies and ensure that they work to the organization’s strategic advantage.  The 21st-century t higher education sector is faced with a challenge of ensuring that they create a sustainable society through education (Lambrechts et al., 2013). Research shows that most of the countries have not met the sustainability required in the education system. For the education sector to achieve sustainable development, it needs having a new model that would help change the way individuals interpret and respond to the current world. The particular literature review on Bachelor of Business Administration Technology Management will focus on what information technology management is all about and the demand for IT professionals in the job market.

All about information technology management

Since the 1970s, researchers have been focusing on management information systems. In the article, King & Rodriguez (1978) maintain that the management information systems had become highly popular. Various significant developments in the field had been encouraged by the advances in computer system technology. According to King & Rodriguez (1978), a lot have been written on the topic of management information system. Many textbooks use flowcharts so as to explain about system developments. However, from various studies, it is evident that information theory is focused on activities of a particular source that is involved in encoding messages (Scheer, 1992). It as well concentrates on a communication channel that is involved in transmitting the coded message. In this case, the theory is not focused on the activities of the source or receiver outside the said symbol processing system.

Mainly, it does not highlight the message that is communicated to the end user. King & Rodriguez (1978) maintain that the progress of developing information processing hardware has outdone the development of assessing the performance of the technology system.  Various models were developed so as to explain the Information Technology system. The Henderson’s model did not specify reporting content and interrelations; data flows technological constraints as well as processing capacities (Bozeman & Bretschneider, 1986). It is not surprising that the model was not included in additional qualification because the approach was huge for the computers in the 1960s and the linear integer programming algorithms (Galliers & Leidner, 2009). There are also other linear programming models for computer selection have been highlighted by researchers. However, in the 1970s no an objective could provide a solution to the information system management. One of the major obstacles that existed during that time was the possibility that the user could capture all of the relationships as well as the empirical measurements required for a statement of performance requirements. King & Rodriguez (1978) maintain that for the Management information system to function the management has to be involved in its design and development. Initially, there were various concerns on whether the managers would agree to the change that came with the introduction of the information system.

Since the introduction of the information system, organizations hired competent computer and data processing workers to handle the systems. The workers are required to have a reasonable degree of the technical competence (Bozeman & Bretschneider, 1986). In this case, the organizations were required to look at their educational and experience credentials. Initially, companies still had a hard time finding people with the right skills and knowledge about the information technology management. The management has to be involved in the implementation of the systems. One of the major problems of Management Information System was a lack of proper management. Researchers also maintained that the issue of MIS assessment was going to develop.

            The current studies show that there is an increase in technologies as well as the availability of data. People working in IT department have a great understanding of the wider aspects of business as they work towards developing systems and processes that ensure that business functions (Mason & Hofflander, 1972). A career in IT management requires technical as well as the ability to assess problems and come up with technology solutions as well as share the information with other people. Various research on Information technology management maintains that the major issue is to match ICT with organization strategy. Nevertheless, there is still a wide difference between a business approach and the required IT infrastructure to support it. Various researchers maintain that information systems strategy is mainly focused on business (Saboo, 2015). Various businesses are focused on employing IT professionals as they continue to increase their reliance on technologies. According to research, in 2016 60% chief information officers had a hard time to find skilled IT professionals in the current job market (Malvik, 2016). However, from various studies, it is evident that there are different jobs fit for an individual with an IT management degree. Some of the jobs include Software applications developer, computer systems analysts, and Network systems administrator as well as computer user support specialist among others.

Organizations and Information technology management

            Hevner et al. (2004) maintain that Information System is introduced in a company so as to enhance its effectiveness as well as efficiency. Mason & Hofflander (1972) maintain that management information systems need to have basic information required by the managers for making decisions.  Information systems and the companies they support tend to be complicated and designed with a purpose.   Today, the ICT products market, as well as services, has profoundly grown. Despite the fact that people have different opinions considering the ICT sector, it is evident that it is here to stay.  Galliers & Leidner (2009) maintain that it is easy to find most of the organizations mentioning strategy courses. Mainly, the course appears as an optional course in MBA curricula or Master’s courses in Management of Organizational Behavior. Some of the organizations continue outsourcing for information services department. Companies prefer to outsource technology management to System Integrators so as the can focus on the main business.  Organizations can use CWG system as they have competent staff and professional partners that offer excellent services (Outsource Technology Management to Systems Integrators – CWG, 2011). CWG is tasked with evaluating solutions, implementing it and finance it for the clients. Research shows that outsourcing Information Technology for the company can be affordable.

            The information technology professionals ensure that the organizations get the best services. Although there are companies that do not link the information system and primary business, there are organizations that are comfortable linking the two (Outsource Technology Management to Systems Integrators – CWG, 2011). The field of an information system is filled with terms that mean several things to different individuals. For example, the term information systems, as well as information technology, has the same meaning.  Currently, it is argued that knowledge can be tracked by highlighting organizational performance. Galliers & Leidner (2009) maintains that organizations have tried to manage knowledge. Hence, they have developed various strategies for managing knowledge. For instance, there are codification strategy and personalization knowledge management strategies. The particular strategies are different; nevertheless, research shows that blending of the two approaches can be effective.

Therefore, the study shows that knowledge should be based on the critical theory of the company, it should concentrate on the hierarchies, markets as well as communities. Companies have different knowledge domains, and they develop and utilize various types of knowledge in each domain. Additionally, it is important for organizations to upgrade their knowledge regularly. In the case of the Information System, it is required to provide relevant information to the managers to assist in making decisions. Hence, it is essential for those developing information system to assess the decision-making process and the data flow (Anderson, 1985). In the Management Information System decision-making process and information, the flow goes hand-in-hand. One of the types of information systems is the predictive information systems. In this case, the information system’s processing passes through the basic data to conclusions of the sources (Easy ways to use E-learning, 2009). Various relationships exist in the particular system. Another information system that exists in the organization is the decision-making systems. It deals with the company’s value system, and the methods of decision-making are incorporated in the information system.

            Many people working in operations research and management science is to develop decision information system. Mason & Hofflander (1972) maintains that designers focus on identifying a group of functional relations concerning written premiums as well as unearned premium reserves. Decision-making information systems use various models. The models include the mathematical programming models as well as the expert advice (ICT project management, 2011). The decision-makers are given the veto power. They are required to follow all the recommendations. Many organizations use the decision-making information system. Additionally, there is the action-taking information system (Anderson, 1985). The particular system involves the information system and the decision-maker. They work together for the good of the company. One example of the action-taking information system is the process-control computer applications. The information system is one of the systems used by the insurance companies. Another method common in the insurance companies is the systematic information systems. The particular systems assess the judgment of the manager. The particular information system is necessary within the working environment.  Mason & Hofflander (1972) maintains that decision-making information systems approach is important compared to a strategy that streamlines the current information flow.

Nevertheless, the approach has its limitations which make it hard for the organizations to incorporate it. There lacks clear approach on assessing the assumptions that trigger information system design. Research shows that Information systems in the early years relied on the Habermas’s theory of knowledge-constitutive interests for its hypothetical foundation.  Although the approach was used for a long time, their people who criticize it. According to various researchers, the method is not permanently convenient (King & Rodriguez, 1978). They argue that one should not ignore other methods for the Habermas theory. Different studies show that Foucault should not be overlooked as it views emancipation an individual concept and focuses on offering participants tools to free themselves. According to Habermas that for communication to reach in understanding it is important to raise four validity. The four validity include comprehensibility, rightness, truth and sincerity. The theory has as well focused on the implementation of a fast strategy. The writer has focused on the application of social action approaches.

Research shows that currently there is high demand for the IT professionals in the employment sector. Snell (2016) maintains that the increase in cyber attacks has led to the partnership of Human Resource and IT professionals. The partnership helps in minimizing cases of cyber-attacks.   In 2014, the cases of identity fraud affected 12.7 million people. Organizations are also affected by cases of cyber crimes. The IT professionals are tasked with developing methods of dealing cyber threats. At times it can be difficult for the IT department as at times, the employees can unknowingly put the company at risk. The workers are required to use the customers’ information in most cases which can at the time be risky.

            Additionally, the IT professionals are pressured by the rapid growth of technologies. One of the technologies that offer the companies hard time is the cloud computing.  It permits workers on-demand, pay-per-use access to the network. The workers use Dropbox as well as other cloud services in their day-to-day lives. In this case, organization and personal data are combined in various networks, devices and storage media. Hence, in case a company’s cloud server is compromised there is a high chance that personal data can be exposed to a third party. On the other side, if the employee’s personal data is compromised there is a strong possibility that an organization’s data may be revealed to a third party (Snell, 2016). Initially, the IT professionals worked alone when dealing with such cases; however, the upsurge of cybercrime has forced the two departments to collaborate. They both have a diverse level of expertise that allows them to develop unique strategies that will help with cases of cyber threats.  Research shows that one way that the two departments can collaborate is through the IT department providing firewalls and antivirus software and coming up with new capabilities for assessing, and managing possible security breaches. 

The HR is mainly tasked with educating the employees concerning the cyber threats. They offer them tools that help manage the issues (Snell, 2016). Workers are also informed about new technologies and how they can ensure that they are safe when using them. IT professionals are tasked with ensuring that the employees understand the involvement of social media in identity theft. The employees are required to monitor what the workers post so as to be on the safe side. Research shows that social media activity is putting organizations at risk of cyber threats. Additionally, social media is affecting the workers’ identity. Information technology is rapidly changing which it makes hard for the researchers to keep up with the transformation.

            The information Technology professions should ensure that they have the knowledge of the company. First, they should understand the company’s structure and factors that affect their approaches as well as operations (Nunamaker Jr & Briggs, 2011).  The development of Management information system depends on how the organization is structured. It is necessary for an IT profession to understand the company so as to develop an effective MIS. Some of the people tend to take shortcuts when developing Information Technology system. Nevertheless, an individual with a Bachelor of Business Administration information technology management has the essential skills that help them follow the right process (Manager, IT Finance.” Computer Economics Report 29.9, 2007). According to research, the Information Technology professionals should understand the different aspects that affect the organizational design.

            Additionally, researchers state that the value of any information is influenced by the actions that the management takes following the use of information. Information professionals should understand the type of tasks and functions management need to perform so as to have developed relevant and important information. The management is tasked with decision-making, leading other people, organizing and managing the company as well as coordinating the staffs.

The different levels within a company have different information requirements.  The functional authority also tends to the manager’s tasks. Planning as well as decision making, are the primary tasks of the management. Planning involves making prior decisions on what is required to be done within the company (Haugen & Musser, 2013). For a manager to ensure that there is adequate planning they should make sure that the decision-making process is evident. Information technology practitioners should make sure that they understand the different types of decisions at the various levels of the company. There are the programmed decisions that are repetitive, and they are usually known. Non-programmed decisions are not known, and they are original. Another important aspect of the decisions is that they are unstructured. The different choices have an impact on the information technology. Research also shows that to develop value from information the company needs to transform behavior. The workers should also focus on the information technology (Peck, 1990). Hence, Information technology system should be developed based on all types of decisions. Another thing that IT professionals should focus on is how the decisions are made and how the developers relate to the company. Also, it is essential to concentrate on the environment and the structure of the firm.

Managers and Information technology professionals need to understand the particular aspects so as to develop effective Information technology systems. Information technology is important to the management (Peck, 1990). Management information system is a unified user-machine system that offers information to support operation in a company. Various changes take place in an organization, and the management is required to ensure that it keeps up with all the transformation (Hevner March, Park & Ram, 2004). At times it can be hard for them to embrace all the changes at once. Therefore, they need important information that increases their knowledge and minimizes their ambiguity.

 The information gathered is relevant to the managers. Lack of relevant information can affect the entire administration (Ein-Dor & Segev, 1978). Management depends on people for it to function; hence, they are required to work closely with all the workers. The introduction of the Information technology brought a new era of the necessary management information. The rising interest in Information technology has led to the development of techniques. The focus is mainly on the administration of the information technology. Research shows that internal performance is necessary for the performance of the company. Management information system is utilized in monitoring the performance of resources. Management information system tends to be the glue that sticks together different elements of a company. It offers the essential information that controls the day-to-day operations within the enterprise. The management information system also offers the implementation method that is required by the company. Bachelor of business Administration Information Technology Management offers students a chance to explore the rising trend of informatics within the employment sector.


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