Impact of Implementing Service Luggage Check-In Technology Essay - Essay Prowess

Impact of Implementing Service Luggage Check-In Technology Essay

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Abstract

As stated by Negri et al. (2019), technology has become an integral part of airport service. Many airports acknowledge the importance of technology in enhancing customer services. It is essential to understand that luggage check-in one of the instances where several problems occur, such as delayed service, confusion while checking leading to unnecessary harassment of customers. the aim of the research is to understand the impact of implementing service luggage check-in technology on customers and security management behaviour at international Heathrow airport. The current research relied on both primary and secondary data. The primary data included both quantitative and qualitative. The data was gathered from passengers at the Heathrow airport. Based on the research, the passengers had positive feedback of the luggage check-in technology used at the airport. The security management were also helpful to the passengers.

THE IMPACT OF IMPLEMENTING SERVICE LUGGAGE CHECK-IN TECHNOLOGY ON CUSTOMERS AND SECURITY MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOUR AT INTERNATIONAL HEATHROW AIRPORT

Introduction

Check-in starts at the airport’s entrance.  It helps in controlling the passengers as well as the luggage. Additionally, luggage check-in is an important step in enhancing security at the airport (Baashirah and Elleithy, 2019). Every airport needs to ensure that nobody carries illegal or dangerous luggage. Additionally, busy airlines face issues such as passengers delay due to processes implemented by the airport. Nevertheless, many airlines have introduced self-service check-in boxes that are meant to ensure there is no congestion at the airport. However, passengers may have to wait for long hours as their suitcases are being checked. Airlines are forced to operate few counters because of high labor and operating costs, therefore, affecting the client.

Initially, security check-up at the airport was conducted manually. In some cases, passenger would complain of harassment by the security officials. However, the introduction of technology, has transformed how the luggage check-up are carried out (Adacher and Flamini, 2019). The process is carried out using a machine which takes less time than manual check-up. Currently, airports have increased their reliance on technology (Pan, et. al., 2019). It enables airports to offer their clients enhanced services. Nevertheless, they are required to employ skilled workers to ensure that the implementation process is smooth. The workers need to have the ability to operate advanced technology. Airports such as, the Heathrow airport have implemented check-in technology that helps them to offer their clients quality services. The technology enables the security personnel to see what is inside the bag without opening it. 

Although check-in technology imaging has its benefits, there are various disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is that clients may be uncomfortable with how the security procedures are undertaken (McNamara and Reicher, 2019). In such cases, it is important for the security officials to ensure that there is transparency. They ought to explain to the passengers about the rules and the benefits of the check-in process.

The current research will focus on International Heathrow Airport which is one of the busiest in London. The study focuses on the security behavior and luggage check-in technology and how it affects passengers. Mainly, the research emphasizes on the influence of airport services on the passengers. Security personnel at Heathrow airport manage transparent relationship with the passengers. They ensure that all bags are checked using the check-in technology. The research uses both secondary and primary data.

Literature Review

This chapter focuses on analyzing information from textbooks, peer reviewed articles as well as journals pertaining technology at the airport and its effects on the passengers. It first focuses on technology at the airport and then highlights security personnel behavior. The section also focuses on literature concerning customer perception.  

Technology at the Airport

Bogicevic et al. (2011) maintains that technology has become an important part of the travel industry. The sector has benefited from the use of technology such as biometrics, self service technologies and smartphone applications. Self-service technologies help in saving time, they include check-in kiosks and baggage drops. Passenger satisfaction is important; hence, airports are introducing new technologies that help in ensuring there is quality services (Bogicevic et al., 2011). Also, airline emergencies and safety procedures are major issues at the airport. Following the 9/11 attack, many airlines focused on the safety of their passengers. The attack highlighted the sector’s vulnerability, hence, stakeholders had to come up with measures to increase security.

Biometric technologies gained popularity due to high number of insecurity cases. Stakeholders in the sector believed that biometric technologies would help in increasing safety at the airports (Albattat et al., 2017). It would help in reducing cost, terrorist activities and increase efficiency. Nevertheless, for the biometrics to be efficient, airports need to employ skilled employees. At Heathrow airport, the security personnel use baggage checking technology (Költzsch, 2006). It helps the airport to maintain its reputation as a major hub. According to Saraogi (2019) Heathrow airport receives more than 80 million passengers every year. The check-in technology handles about 60,000 bags every day. However, this number increases during the holiday season. Currently, the airport has implemented a complete automated baggage system (Alodhaibi et al., 2018). The screening process begins when the bag is dropped at departures. It is then sent to an automated baggage-sorting facility through a conveyer belt which is found behind the passenger-facing terminal. The bag is then screened by hold-baggage screening machines and it is later loaded onto the aircraft.

Although technology has been efficient in increasing security at the airport, it has its fair share of disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is the fact that clients are required to share personal details to the security personnel (Alsyouf et al., 2018). Also, the security officials can check what the bag contains, hence, some people may feel that their privacy is compromised. In this case, the security officials are tasked with ensuring that the passengers are protected. Security officials are required to explain to the passengers about the check-in process and what it entails. At Heathrow airport, the security officials understand the importance of maintain proper relations with the passengers. They ensure that they are aware about the norms as well as rules at the airport. First, passengers are not permitted to check-in with any drinks or explosives.

The check-in technology helps the security personnel to identify the products.  It is important for airports to upgrade the technology regularly. However, airports that fail to upgrade their systems end up providing poor customer services (Negri et al., 2019). Apart from having enhanced technologies, airports also need to have great security personnel. For the luggage check-in technologies to work efficiently, the security workers need to be involved. Potential suspicious object inside a bag is first identified by the system (Robertson et al., 2018). It is identified through a combination of automated image recognition and supervision by the security workers. Further inspection is later carried out to determine the object.  Integrated security procedures optimization based on the new technology allows the airports to enhance their security (Guimaraes and Tofighi, 2018). It also ensures that the clearance procedures are fast. In this case, the procedures not only benefit the airports in improving security, they also, enable them to increase revenue.

Passengers’ Perception

According to Hemdi et al. (2016) customers do not appreciate delays and this may affect their satisfaction. Technology is meant to ensure that services are carried out fast and efficiently. However, for a new technology to be effective, the users need to be ready to embrace it. Optimism refers to a positive perspective towards a new technology. In this case, a person needs to be ready to use it and learn more about the enhanced technology (Brida et al., 2016). In many cases, a person who understand the technology may have an easy time accepting it compared to an individual who lacks knowledge about it. Additionally, people may refuse to use technology due to insecurity. Individuals may question its ability or legitimacy. Lack of security towards a new technology may decrease the rate of reception. Individuals may oppose the implementation of the new technology. Customer satisfaction helps in assessing the efficiency of a technology.

Mainly, companies focus on increasing customer satisfaction. They believe that high customer satisfaction would have positive impact on the company. However, discomfort may lead to poor reception of the technology (Goodpasture and Hubbell, 2016). In case there is discomfort among passengers when using technology at the airport, it is important for the security personnel to direct them on how it works. Also, it is significant for the airport to access the passengers’ perception to understand if it will be beneficial. According to Roa (2018) technology enables customers to get fast services. Most London airports have installed latest technologies to ensure that their clients receive great services. Customer experience has had positive impact on the airports’ image. The luggage check-in technology allows the security personnel to check passengers’ bags. The technology has had huge benefits to many airports. Nevertheless, it is important for airports to understand their clients when implementing the technology.  According to Brida et al. (2016) clients’ perception is based on the quality of services offered. In this case, if the technology is not implemented well, the customers maybe opposed to it.

However, Qi and Pan, (2018) state that in most cases, officials need to make effort to ensure that the technology offer the desired service. This luggage check-in technology is well programmed, and a pool of X-ray is passed through the products of the bags to detect explosives. It can even detect things inside small poly bags that are put inside the main bag (Barbarella, et. al., 2018). It can go for deeper analysis of the image obtained. It has pre and post check programs that scan the whole bag to ensure that there are no harmful substances inside the bag. Laptops and liquids are easily detected by this technology. This technology is gaining importance in the airports for its flexibility and quick service. This technology makes smart airport facility and customers enjoy a hassle-free checking of baggage and luggage (Barbarella, et. al., 2018). 

The International Heathrow Airport is regarded as one of the busiest airports, the hub of big flight companies such as British Airways, Virgin Atlantic, it is essential for the airport to attract and retain customers. As mentioned by Cole, (2015), use of technology has enabled the airport to provide fats efficient service. One of the services that has improved noticeably is the luggage check-in. The smart airport also uses LiDAR technology as pointed out by Ahmed et. al., (2019). This technology also provides scanning option of the baggage before boarding the flight. This technology is widely used in the Heathrow airport as well. It involved light detection and ranging by an autonomous rover. By passing laser lights it detects the contents of the bags. The rover moves on a designated track and scan for any offensive devices and liquids and laptops in the baggage. It is operated by Bluetooth or cellular technology (Robertson, et. al., 2018). However, the technology is not as advanced as the 3D imaging technology. This technology cannot detect objects of variable size and compositions. This system is unable to detect the contents inside a container or poly bags. This is a big drawback of this technology. That is why the government is focusing on changing these technologies and upgrade the security check up to higher level. This can be effectively done by implementing a 3D imaging technology with high resolution image (Barbarella, et. al., 2018). As per the opinion of Kyriazanos et al. (2016), large important airports such as the Heathrow needs to understand and give importance to customer perception.

Security Management behavior

The security personnel are tasked with ensuring that all clients are checked before boarding. They are also required to check their bags to make sure that they do not carry any contrabands. Behavior of the security management may affect how the customers’ respond to the new technology (Brown, 2017). They are tasked with explaining to the passengers about the new technology and how it operates. Security officials also need to ensure that the passengers are comfortable with the entire process. The security officers should cooperate with the passengers in the security checking. The security management is responsible for explaining the passengers about the harmful effect of the product on the airplane. They should behave politely with the people at the airport (Guimaraes and Tofighi, 2018).               

Research Aim

The chapter focuses on the aim of the research as well as objective and hypothesis. The study. The research aims to identify the significance of implementing service luggage check-in technology and how does it impact the customers as well as the security management in the Heathrow International Airport.   

Main Objectives

The research has different objectives they include:

To discuss about the impact of the implementation of the check-in technologies in airport

To discuss about the impact of this technology on the customers and security management

To check the behaviour of the security management in context of this technology

Hypotheses

Based on literature review it is clear that passengers’ satisfaction is important. Therefore, it is important for airports to ensure that their clients get quality services. Various hypothesis have been developed based on the literature review. They include

H1: Implementation of service luggage check-in technology influences customers and security management behavior. It affects how they respond to services offered at the airport.

H2: The benefits of the technology at Heathrow airport is that it increases security and the quality of the services offered. Challenges are that for the technology to function well, the security officers may be well trained.

H3: Some clients maybe reluctant to use the technology.

Methodology

One of the most significant aspects associated with operations in an airport scenario is the safety and security of the passengers. In order to achieve all the proper answers to the questions raised through this research procedure is to follow an appropriate methodology. This chapter will include the methodology used so as to carry out the study. It includes the research design, research approach, sample, data analysis.

Research design

There is lack of enough research on the effect of luggage check-in technology on passengers and security personnel behavior. Therefore, both primary and secondary data is used in the current research. Passengers were given questionnaires. However, they were not required to include personal information.  The questionnaire was divided into two different parts. The first part focused on demographic profile. The second part focused on the passengers’ perception of the luggage check-in technology.

Research approach

The researcher has used inductive approach for doing the particular study. It is effective to analyse the situation of airport concerning technology use. This in turn enabled the researcher to lead to a conclusion. It is helpful to understand the way security management and technology of luggage check-in helps customers. Secondary data is considered to be most appropriate for this research procedure as it helps to identify the research gaps in the researches that were conducted in the past.

Furthermore, cause of the rapid technological advancement gaps can be identified in the past researches. Moreover, a number of new research questions is answered with the help of the research procedures. In order to analyse the behaviour of the security management and the consumers the researcher communicated with the passengers and the security management teams to collect data through the primary data collection procedures. Passengers while travelling do not care to answer questions and considering the huge number of passengers travelling from the Heathrow International Airport the data collecting procedure is highly time-consuming. Furthermore, the data collected from these passengers is highly diverse and hence it was quite challenging to analyse the data that has been collected.

Sample

The research participants are mainly passengers who use the Heathrow airport. The questionnaires were given to all the passengers from ages 20 and above. The interviewers did not consider race when interviewing the passengers. However, the participants were required to fill-in the consent form. It ensured that no one participated in the research process against their will. Also, the participants needed to have travelled through the Heathrow airport. The participants included those that were departing as well as the arrivals. Although it was difficult convincing them to participate in the research, most of the participants were willing to answer the questionnaire. They were enlightened about the purpose of the research and what it entails.

The research included 70 participants, whereby, 80% were aged 30 years and above. In this case, 56 participants were aged 30 years and above while the remaining 14 were aged between 18 years and 29 years. Most of the participants had used the airport before, therefore, they were aware of its rules and regulations.

Ethical Considerations

While collecting the data for this research procedure the Data Protection Act 2018 was followed strictly and the entire procedure has been executed in a proper ethical way. All the necessary steps were taken to ensure that the Data Protection Act 2018 was followed throughout the data collecting procedure. Considering the significance of data in a research procedure it has been noticed that often people go to an extent to collect the data that may not be ethical. For a research procedure to be successful and to ensure accurate outcomes of a research it is important to maintain the ethics part of it positively.

Results/ finding

This chapter will focus on the findings from the qualitative and quantitative data gathered during the research.

Qualitative findings

The primary research included both quantitative and qualitative data. This section will first focus on the findings from the qualitative data.

How old are you?

The research included 70 participants, whereby, 80% were aged 30 years and above. In this case, 56 participants were aged 30 years and above while the remaining 14 were aged between 18 years and 29 years.

What is your gender

Based on the research there was a huge number of women travelling compared to that of men. There were 50 women and 20 men who participated in the research. It seemed that women were willing to participate in the study compared to men.

Have you encountered any problems concerning luggage security?

Another question presented to the participants was whether they have encountered any issues concerning luggage security. based on the research 90% of the participants maintained that they have encountered diverse issues. Some people maintained that they have lost their luggage especially during the check-in process. Others pointed out that they have lost some valuables. Based on the research, the most noted issue was loss of valuables.

What measures has the airport undertaken to ensure that all the luggage that passes through the airport is safe?

Based on the research, all the interviewed people maintained that the airport has introduced technology that helps in checking the luggage. They pointed out that the security officials are also on the forefront ensuring that the bags passing through the airport are safe.

What are some of the luggage Check-in technology has International Heathrow Airport implemented?

Many passengers were not aware of the exact name of the technology used by the airport to check their bags.  However, they acknowledged that the bags were being taken through a scanning machine.

Do you consider the security measures used sufficient?

A huge number of the participants (60) maintained that the measures taken by the airport were sufficient. However, 10 participants maintained that the security measures were lacking.

What are some of the issues as a passenger have you encountered concerning luggage check-in technology?

90% (60) of the participants maintained that they have lost bags during the process. The remaining 10% argued that they have had their bags interfered with, thus losing their valuables.

What are the factors as a passenger do you consider when using luggage Check-in technology?

56 of the participants maintained that they consider the usefulness of the technology being used. However, 14 of the participants argued that they prefer technology that is easy to use.

Have you encountered any harassment from the security personnel carrying out the process?

Based on the research it was clear that most of the participants (50 participants) have never encountered any harassment by the security official. However, 20 participants maintained that they have been harassed by security officials at some point.

Are conversant with technology?

60 of the participants were conversant with technology while the remaining ten maintained that they needed assistance when using it.

Quantitative findings

How often do you use Heathrow Airport?

80% of the participants maintained that they use Heathrow airport regularly while 20% maintained that they rarely use it.

Using the luggage check-in technology required minimal effort compared to when they are checked manually by the security officers

90% of the participants strongly agreed that it was easy to use technology. However, 10% of the participants disagreed with this notion, the strongly felt that the technology used was not easy.

The security personnel were helpful during the luggage check-in process.

95% of the participants agreed that the security officers were helpful. However, 5% of the participants maintained that the security personnel were not helpful.

The operation of the luggage check-in technology process was interesting.

95% of the participants agreed that the luggage check-in technology process was interesting. However, 5% of the participants maintained that the luggage check-in technology process was not interesting

I Felt good that I had a chance to use luggage check-in technology.

80% of the participants agreed that they felt good that I had a chance to use luggage check-in technology. However, 20% of the participants maintained that they were not thrilled by the luggage check-in technology.

The airport security manning the luggage check-in technology understood my needs.

90% of the participants agreed the airport security manning the luggage check-in technology understood their needs. However, 10% of the participants maintained that the airport security manning the luggage check-in technology did not understood their needs.

I would highly recommend people to use the luggage check-in technology.

80% of the participants agreed that would highly recommend people to use the luggage check-in technology. However, 20% of the participants maintained that they would not recommend people to use the luggage check-in technology

I would go through the luggage check-in again.

90% of the participants strongly agreed that they would go through the luggage check-in again. However, 10% of the participants maintained that they would not go through the technology.

I felt that my luggage was safe during the check-in process.

90% of the participants maintained that they felt that their luggage was safe during the check-in process. However, 10% of the participants strongly disagreed.

The luggage check-in technology is easy to understand

90% of the participants maintained that the luggage check-in technology is easy to understand. However, 10% of the participants strongly disagreed with the notion.

Evaluation of the research

This chapter will include interpretation of the research findings. They will be compared with findings from the secondary data gathered. It will also link with the research hypothesis to find the final outcome.

The main aim of the research is to find out the impact of implementing service luggage check-in technology on customers and security management behaviour at international Heathrow airport. Clients’ perception plays a huge part in the success of technology. Roa (2018) points out that technology helps customers to receive fast service. The experience of customers has resulted in a positive outlook of the luggage check-in technology. Based on the current research 90% of the participants strongly agreed that it was easy to use technology. Therefore, it shows that they had a positive outlook of the luggage check-in technology. Also, 95% of the participants agreed that the luggage check-in technology process was interesting.

Goodpasture and Hubbell (2016) explain that technology has undoubtedly helped airports such as Heathrow airport to enhance complex operations such as luggage check-in, where many luggage is checked-in and out. In this case, the technology is meant to ensure that the check-in process is safe. Brida et al. (2016) state that the perception of customers varies as per service. If technology can provide quality service, perception would be positive. Based on the current research, it was clear that a high number of participants were satisfied with the services offered by the luggage check-in technology. Most of the participants maintained that they felt that their luggage was safe during the check-in process. Also, most of the participants maintained that the technology was interesting to use. Cole (2015), the use of technology has enabled the airport to provide fast, efficient service.

Additionally, Prentice and Kadan (2019) point that, along with technology, the behaviour of security management equally holds importance. It helps to enhance overall service quality. Based on the current technology it is clear that most of the participants were satisfied with the services offered by the security officials. They maintained that the officials were helpful during the luggage check-in process. In this case, it shows that the quality of services offered at the Heathrow airport were satisfactory. Officials need to make an effort to ensure that the technology offers the desired service. Most participants also maintained that they did not face any harassment from the security officials. Moreover, the Heathrow has ensured to move to a secured and more straightforward security service that is provided by the scanner (Chung et al., 2017). In this case, based on the current research, most of the participants maintained that the luggage check-in technology used at the airport was easy to understand. They maintained that they did not encounter any issues while using it.

As stated earlier the aim of the current research is to understand the impact of implementing service luggage check-in technology on customers and security management behaviour at international Heathrow airport. In many cases, the customer perception plays a huge part during the implementation of any technology. Although they may have different expectations, airports should understand their needs to help in providing quality services. Based on the current research, it is evident, Heathrow airport has been on the forefront providing the best services to their clients. The security officials understand the passengers’ needs and they are always ready to help. Therefore, the security officials are embracing the technology and assisting the passengers. Another interesting aspect to note is that most of the passengers are above the age 30. The passengers regularly use Heathrow airport and most of them are willing to recommend other people to use the technology. It shows that there is high client satisfaction. Also, they maintain that they are not opposed to using the technology again.

Most of the passengers did not know the name of technology used by Heathrow airport. The airport uses LiDAR technology, as pointed out by Ahmed et al. (2019). This technology also provides a scanning option of the baggage before boarding the flight. This technology is widely used in Heathrow airport as well. It involved light detection and ranging by an autonomous rover.  The rover moves on a designated track and scan for any offensive devices and liquids and laptops in the baggage. It is operated by Bluetooth or cellular technology (Robertson et al., 2018).

Conclusion

This chapter will summarise the main points from the research. It will include information from the secondary data as well as primary data.

First, the aim of the research is to understand the impact of implementing service luggage check-in technology on customers and security management behaviour at international Heathrow airport. Based on both the literature review and the primary data collected, the customer perception of technology plays an important role when implementing technology. In this case, the implementation of luggage check-in technology at the airport has been aided by the positive perception of the passengers. Most passengers were willing to use the new technology. They found it easy to use and offering great services. Initially, security check-up at the airport was conducted manually. In some cases, passenger would complain of harassment by the security officials. However, the introduction of luggage check-in technology, has transformed how the luggage check-up are carried out. Heathrow airport, the security personnel use luggage check-in technology. It helps the airport to maintain its reputation as a major hub. Based on research, Heathrow airport receives more than 80 million passengers every year. The luggage check-in technology handles about 60,000 bags every day. However, this number increases during the holiday season. Currently, the airport has implemented a complete automated baggage system. For the luggage check-in technology to work efficiently, the security workers need to be involved. Based on the current study, the security personnel have been involved in the luggage check-in process. They ensure that all bags are checked. The security officers should cooperate with the passengers in the security checking. The security management is responsible for explaining the passengers about the harmful effect of the product on the airplane. They should behave politely with the people at the airport. The security officials work together with the passengers to make sure that the process is successful. In most cases, officials need to make effort to ensure that the technology offer the desired service. This luggage check-in technology is well programmed, and a pool of X-ray is passed through the products of the bags to detect explosives. It can even detect things inside small poly bags that are put inside the main bag.

Recommendations

Based on the current research, it is clear that both customers and security management have positive perception of the luggage check-in technology. However, it is clear that there is minimal research regarding the luggage check-in technology and how it benefits airports. It is important for future research to concentrate on the area so as to understand its effect. Also, the current research concentrated on a small number of participants which may affect the credibility of the outcomes. Therefore, in future it is important for researchers to concentrate on a bigger number of people. Additionally, having face-to-face interview had a huge impact on the study. First, not many people were willing to participate. Also, most of them were in hurry, hence, they felt that it was a waste of time. In this case, it is important for future research to be conducted on the online platform. This will enable the researcher to reach out to more participants. Also, the participants can answer questions at the comfort of their home, school or even at work. Future research should also focus on other airports. It would enable researchers to compare the effectiveness of the luggage check-in technology. They can include busy airports from other countries. Also, they can compare how effective the technology is in improving security.

Appendices

Qualitative Questions

How Old are you?

18-25

26-30

30 and above

What is your Gender?

Female

Male

Have you encountered any problems concerning luggage security?

Yes

No

What measures has the airport undertaken to ensure that all the luggage that passes through the airport is safe?

What are some of the luggage Check-in technology has International Heathrow Airport implemented?

Do you consider the security measures used sufficient?

Yes

No

What are some of the issues as a passenger have you encountered concerning luggage check-in technology?

What are the factors as a passenger do you consider when using luggage Check-in technology?

Usefulness

ease of use

Have you encountered any harassment from the security personnel carrying out the process?

Yes

No

Are conversant with technology?

Yes

No

Quantitative research (tick only one box)

How often do you use Heathrow Airport?

Regularly

Rarely

Using the luggage check-in technology required minimal effort compared to when they are checked manually by the security officers.

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

The security personnel were helpful during the luggage check-in process

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

The operation of the luggage check-in technology process was interesting.

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

I Felt good that I had a chance to use luggage check-in technology.

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

The airport security manning the luggage check-in technology understood my needs.

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

I would highly recommend people to use the luggage check-in technology.

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

I would go through the luggage check-in again.

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

I felt that mu luggage was safe during the check-in process.

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

The luggage check-in technology is easy to understand

 12345 
Strongly disagree     Strongly agree

Sources used for Analysis

Roa, J., 2018, July. Technology Development Framework for Air Traffic Control Assisted

Airport Procedures in Dynamic Wake Separations. In International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (pp. 11-18). Springer, Cham.

                The source focuses on the importance of technology. Therefore, it is a good source of understanding its impact on clients.

Goodpasture, A. and Hubbell, S., 2016. The evolution of the passenger experience on

the airport concourse. Journal of Airport Management10(3), pp.283-290.

The source focuses on how technology has changed passenger experience. Thus, it is a good source in understanding its impact on customers.

Chung, E.K., Jung, Y. and Sohn, Y.W., 2017. A moderated mediation model of job

stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention for airport security screeners. Safety science, 98, pp.89-97.

The source helps in understanding the link between security management and technology.

Qi, Q. and Pan, Z., 2018, March. Internet of Things, Internet, Big Data and Airport

Services Make Smart Airport Based on O2O and Humanism. In 2018 International Conference on Mechanical, Electronic, Control and Automation Engineering (MECAE 2018). Atlantis Press.

The source helps in understanding how technology has impacted operations at the airport

Robertson, D.A., Macfarlane, D.G., Hunter, R.I., Cassidy, S.L., Llombart, N., Gandini,

E., Bryllert, T., Ferndahl, M., Lindström, H., Tenhunen, J. and Vasama, H., 2018, April. A high frame rate, 340 GHz 3D imaging radar for security. In 2018 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf18) (pp. 0055-0060). IEEE.

The source is important as it highlights how 3D technology works.

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