Human Trafficking Essay- 2000 Words - Essay Prowess

Human Trafficking Essay- 2000 Words

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Human Trafficking

Abstract

Human trafficking is any form of transfer, transportation, recruitment, receipt and harboring of people through deception, fraud, abduction, coercion, threat or force for the purpose of exploitation. Human trafficking is a heinous crime that occurs across the world where almost every nation is involved. Victims of trafficking suffer from exploitations as prostitutes, gross violation of human rights, forced labor, removal of organs and sexual exploitations. Research indicates that there are 27 million cases of slavery across the world. Traffickers gain approximately 30 billion as their annual benefits. There are nearly 244 000 children and youth who were vulnerable to sexual exploitation in 2000. In 1999, there was more than 38 000 or 1.5 million of youth, that ran away from the sex industry. The U.S. State Department in 2012 recorded that there were an estimate of 14 000 to 17 000 victims, who are trafficked into the nation. Moreover, 50 percent of the persons trafficked are children. Various suggestions are made concerning how to solve the problem. Instead of arresting the victims, the government should remove them from the streets and take them to organizations where they can get assistance. In addition, the traffickers should be facing prosecution. The judicial system should set up courtrooms that specifically deal with cases of prostitution and human trafficking. The government has initiated Federal Strategic Action Plans on human Trafficking victims in 2012 to help in the fight against the problem. Therefore, every member of the society such as the government, civilians and legislators should join hands in dealing with such problems.

Introduction

Human trafficking is a grave crime and a serious human rights violation. Each year, millions of children, women and men suffer in the hands of traffickers in their nations or abroad. Nearly all the nations across the globe are affected by trafficking, whether as victims’ destinations, origin or transit of victims. The United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime requires that all nations to implement the trafficking in person protocol that plays a crucial role in reducing cases of human trafficking and punish traffickers (Weitzer, 2014, p. 19). Human trafficking is any form of transfer, transportation and recruitment, receipt and harboring of people through deception, fraud, abduction, coercion, threat or force for the purpose of exploitation. Victims of trafficking suffer from exploitations as prostitutes, forced labor, removal of organs and sexual exploitations.  Human trafficking is referred to as the modern form of slavery to persons where they are controlled and exploited by others that they can gain the benefits (McCabe, 2008, p.23). Most of the victims are over 18 years where they are involved in the sex trade since they are required to conduct sex acts. Governments convict and prosecute victims of human trafficking, but they should initiate support programs and create awareness concerning the problem in their nations.

The number of human trafficking increases at an alarming rate every year, where the traffickers accumulate billions of dollars from this. A research by Tyldum, & Brunovskis, (2005) indicates that there are 27 million cases of slavery across the world. In addition, more than 800 000 persons are transported across the international borders (Tyldum, & Brunovskis, 2005, p.4). Moreover, in each year, approximately one million children are involved in commercial sex trade globally. Furthermore, a study by Shelley, (2007) noted that there are transitional victims among children include approximately 50 percent, while 80 percent of women and girls are transitional victims.

Reports indicate that approximately 70 percent of females are forced into commercial sex in the sex industries, while 30 percent of these women encounter forced labor. In spite of this, more than 161 nations globally encounter these forms of problems where human traffickers gain approximately 30 billion as their annual benefits (Shelley, 2007, p. 3). According to International labor organization females represent the biggest proportion of forced labor victims. Reports indicate that only 45 percent are trafficked (9.5 million) as compared to 55 percent (11.4 million) women and girls as victims.

The United States is one of the nations that are affected by human trafficking over a decade. Research by Tyldum, & Brunovskis, (2005) shows that there are nearly 244000 children and youth were vulnerable to sexual exploitation in 2000. In 1999, there was more than 38 000 or 1.5 million of youth, that ran away from the sex industry since they had been sexual endangerment or victims of sexual exploitation (Tyldum, & Brunovskis, 2005, p.5). In terms of prostitution, the mean age range of persons who are compelled to it ranges from 12 to 14 years of age.  In some states such as California, there were approximately 560 prospects between 2005 and 2007. Besides, there is an estimate of 60 applications concerning the continuous existence of human trafficking (McCabe, 2008, p.23). In the state of Virginia, reports show that 45 victims of trafficking exist from four different groups. In Wisconsin, there are 200 victims of the sex trade and trafficking. Out of these victims, 85 percent are adults while the rest are children.

Internationally, slave cost an average of $90 and there is an estimate of 20 to 30 million slaves in the world. The state of California has three of the largest hubs of child sex trafficking in the United States. The places include San Diego, San Francisco and Los Angeles (McCabe, 2008, p.27).  Human trafficking is the third biggest global crime industry following illegal drugs and arms trafficking. The activities generate many benefits of which developed nations receive 15.5 billion.

According to the U.S. State Department in 2012, there are an estimate of 14 000 to 17000 victims who are trafficked into the nation. Moreover, 50 percent of the persons trafficked are children. Countries in the Pacific or East Asia are the biggest origins of the people who enter into the United States every year (Weitzer, 2014, p. 19).  The highest percentage of these victims (46 percent) join prostitution, 27 percent join domestic servitude while Misc., agriculture, and factories acquires 12 percent, 10 percent and 5 percent respectively. Big cities such as Chicago are the largest hub of human trafficking in the United States. Chicago is the fastest growing city in terms of national hub of trafficking. It has a large international airport that facilitates these cases (Tyldum, & Brunovskis, 2005, p. 8). Statistics from the National Human Trafficking Resource Center revealed that the state of Illinois had the highest call volume. The victims are usually obtained from the suburbs in Chicago in areas such as men’s clubs and massage parlors since police monitor places in downtown.

The federal and state governments have initiated a number of counter measures to address the problem of human trafficking in the U.S. The Obama administration has developed the Federal strategic action plans on human trafficking victims in 2012 to help in the fight against the problem (Weitzer, 2014, p. 21). The aim is to incorporate 15 government agencies and other stakeholders involved in the campaign across the nation. The project has included activities that help to meet the needs of human trafficking survivors. In addition, it assists all victims to recover and reconstruct their lives.

Many women who become prostitutes are charged with sex crimes. Therefore, the justice systems turn these persons into criminals instead of helping them (Winterdyk, Perrin, & Reichel, 2012, p.107). Therefore, rather than arresting these people, they should remove from the streets and taken to organization where they can get assistance. In addition, the traffickers should be facing prosecution (Weitzer, 2014, p. 26). Besides, the judicial system should set up courtrooms that specifically deal with cases of prostitution and human trafficking. In this case, the nation will significantly reduce the number of prostitutes suffering for being in the sex trade.  Instead of turning victims of trafficking who are in prostitution into criminals, they should be provided with the necessary support in terms of employment and counseling. In case they are treated as criminals their chances of returning to prostitution is very high (McCabe, 2008, p.25). Nonetheless, when they get appropriate support, they have an opportunity to return to healthy and happy life.

According to Senate Bill 122, every person convicted of sex trafficking shall register with a state law as a sex offender. In addition, they should put on a GPS tracking device. Moreover, it renewed the trafficking victims protection act. Under the new legislation, the government initiates programs to offer the crucial support to persons.  Such support services include therapy for victims who experience post-traumatic stress disorder (Tyldum, & Brunovskis, 2005, p.7). Moreover, senate bill “safe Harbor Bill” does not allow children under the age of 18 years to be prosecuted because of prostitution.  Instead, traffickers will be responsible for their crimes.  The United States civilians must play a crucial role in combating trafficking. For instance, they should condemn and prevent cases that involve sex slavery (Weitzer, 2014, p. 29). For instance, pornography should be controlled because some of the participants are sex trafficking victims.

Conclusion

Human trafficking is a grave crime that normally involves violation of human rights. It often results from illegal transport and transfer of people, forcing persons into labor, coercive recruiting and physical exploitation (Shelley, 2007, p. 7). Almost every country in the world suffers from this crime. In most cases, people are trafficked from poorer nations to industrialized nations. The highest proportion of victims is involved in prostitution, while forced labor is second (McCabe, 2008, p.28). Persons trafficked to work usually receive slavery treatments in mining, domestic and farming work. Most forced laborers work under threat of violence and even without payment coupled with sexual abuse. Child trafficking leads to social, emotional and psychological torture to the victims. Therefore, every member of the society such as the government, civilians and legislators should join hands in dealing with such vices.

Appendices

Figure showing the cases of human trafficking in the U.S., (Tyldum, & Brunovskis, 2005)

Annotated bibliography

McCabe, K. (2008). The trafficking of persons. New York: P. Lang.

In this study, the researcher has examined the way how human trafficking is carried out in different countries. The study concluded that it occurs through abduction, coercion, deception and fraud. It also noted that many victims suffer from sexual torture, forced labor and gross violation of human rights. The researcher noted that big towns in the United States are hubs of human trafficking such as Los Angeles. However, the research does not give an explicit analysis of the how to prevent human trafficking in the U.S.

Shelley, L. (2007). Human trafficking as a form of transnational crime. Human trafficking, 116-137.

In this study, the author discusses why human trafficking is a criminal activity. He noted that children are largely involved in this form of trade, which affect their lives. The research concluded that approximately one million children are involved in commercial sex trade globally. Most of the children are children from the poor countries, while the traffickers benefit from nearly $32 billion per year. The study concludes that human trafficking is a form of exploitation and modern slavery.

Tyldum, G., & Brunovskis, A. (2005). Describing the unobserved: Methodological challenges in empirical studies on human trafficking. International Migration, 43(1‐2), 17-34.

The research has keenly investigated the number of human trafficking cases across the world. The scholars identified that more than 27 million cases of slavery happen each year across the world. In addition, they explained how 800 000 persons are transported across the international borders in human trafficking. The study concluded that nearly 244000 children and youth were vulnerable to sexual exploitation in 2000 while in 1999, there was more than 38 000 or 1.5 million of youth, that ran away from the sex industry.

Weitzer, R. (2014). Human Trafficking and Contemporary Slavery. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1).

The author conducted a review of the United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime on human trafficking. He argued that most nations have not implemented the trafficking in person protocal. Besides, he argued that most traffickers go unpunished for their illegal crimes in many parts of the world. In the U.S. the majority of the victims come from pacific nations and Asians nations. Additionally, he argues that the Federal Strategic action plans on human Trafficking victims executed by the Obama administration, will go along way in reducing the practices.

Winterdyk, J., Perrin, B., & Reichel, P. (2012). Human trafficking. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.

The author interprets the aim of the government in tackling the rising trends of human trafficking in the U.S. They argue that campaign against the practice will reduce cases of human trafficking. Moreover, incorporating all the stakeholders will help to minimize cases of human trafficking across the globe. They also suggest ways of dealing with the problem. They advocate the installation of proper measures such prosecution of traffickers and avoiding prosecution of victims. Therefore, the justice systems should develop appropriate measures to help the victims rather than punish them.

References

McCabe, K. (2008). The trafficking of persons. New York: P. Lang.

Shelley, L. (2007). Human trafficking as a form of transnational crime. Human trafficking, 116-137.

Tyldum, G., & Brunovskis, A. (2005). Describing the unobserved: Methodological challenges in empirical studies on human trafficking. International Migration, 43(1‐2), 17-34.

Weitzer, R. (2014). Human Trafficking and Contemporary Slavery. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1).

Winterdyk, J., Perrin, B., & Reichel, P. (2012). Human trafficking. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.