Human resource management
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Human resource management
Human resources management involves working with people in an organization to achieve the set goals. In working with the people it requires that management strategies should be put in place to ensure the best results are achieved. Organizations have continuously put in place strategies to ensure they have an efficient human resources management. The department performs several significant tasks for an organization by ensuring that the most efficient people are hired. Firms have different compositions of the HR departments according to the needs of the organization (Katou & Budhwar 2006).
The efficient performance of other departments in an organization depend on human resources department. The HR department supplies other departments within the organization with the required workforce. The ability of the HR department to select the most efficient employees to this department contributes significantly to how the departments will perform. However, there are several procedures in the activities of the human resources department that are universal for all organizations. For this reason, planners have designed procedures and processes that are efficient in performing the HRM activities. The procedures relate to hiring of new workforces and how they can be maintained within the organization. Also, the process explain approaches that are helpful in handling different needs of the employees (Budd & Bhave 2010).
- Differences between personnel management and human resource management.
PR and HRM are closely related but there are some functional differences that exists in how they are viewed. Personnel management is basically managing people in an organization while human resources management is the leading of people within an organization to achieve the set goal. Personnel management focuses of people as means of reaching the goals but human resource management is a way of developing the people so as they can achieve the set goals. Personnel management focusses on administering the people in the organization, considering their welfare, and maintaining the labor relations. HRM puts emphasis of proper was of acquiring the people, motivating them, developing them, and maintaining them within the organization. Human resources management approach considers the workers in the organization as people and they are a very valuable resource that ensures the firm achieves the set goals. On the other hand, PR sees the workers as mere tools for the achievement of the goals of the firm. They are just like other resources that firm possesses (Boxall & Macky 2009).
Firms that practice PR only undertake the function so as they can meet the needs of the workers within the organization. The firms that practice HRM, the function is conducted so as to achieve the organizational gals by leading and working with the employees. In PR job design is on the basis of division of labor while in human resources management job design considers the element of team to get the workers cooperating with each other. There are very few employee development programs for the employees in a PR model. In HRM the employee development form a major consideration for the managers where the employees undergo a series of development programs so as they can perform their jobs adequately. In PR the managers focus in increasing the productivity of the organization and satisfying the needs of the workers. In HRM the managers emphasize on improving effectiveness, increasing employee participation, focusing on culture development, and increasing productivity. Firms that practice PR do it for routine purposes without any direction. The firms that practice HRM take it as a strategy that they incorporate in the major strategy of the organization to achieve the designed goals (Katou & Budhwar 2006).
1.2 Assessing the HRM functions contributions to both Asda and Aldi
The HRM functions in Asda and Aldi are very significant because they help these organizations meet the designed goals. The departments play significant roles that boosts the performance of the organizations in several way. These functions help Asda and Aldi to build capacity by providing the vital human resources for the organization. The ability to acquire the most competent employees via these departments makes Asda and Aldi have a competitive advantage over other firms. Firms are continuously competing for the most talented work force and the HRM department for Asda and Aldi conduct represent the firms (Johnason 2009).
The HRM departments for Asda and Aldi are responsible for creating collaboration within the firms. By designing effective teams in these firms increases the performance. The HRM has the responsibility to assign the employees jobs according to their qualification and experience. By matching the employees to the right duties in the two firms, the HRM function contributes to the increase in the productivity. On being assigned the right responsibilities, the employee satisfaction improves boosting performance. The HRM also performs the function of offering advice to the firm on how to shift employees within the firm increasing performance (Johnason 2009).
Another contribution to these firms that HRM offers is the building of commitment. The HRM professionals design appropriate strategies that help the managers maintain the workers within and committed to the organization. They offer the right motivation packages for the workers basing on their jobs that motivates the employees increasing their commitment. These professionals also design strategies that ensure the employees remained challenged and interested in their jobs throughout the year. Furthers, these departments come up with effective training and development packages for the employees to ensure they have the right skills for the performance of their duties. Therefore, the performance of all these roles by the HRM departments helps these firms achieve their purpose (Katou & Budhwar 2006).
1.3 Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in human resource management in Asda and Aldi
The line managers’ responsibilities revolves around overseeing the employees as they perform their duties and creating a report for the top managers. First, the line managers come up with teams, rating a culture for the team, appraising the employee, and rating how the employees behave and their performance. Second, the line managers discipline the employees who go against the set code of conduct and team culture. Third, they rate the performance of the employee and determine if an employee qualifies for a pay rise. They produce a report which they submit to the HR manager who then awards the employees for good performance (Johnason 2009).
Therefore, the human resources managers at Asda and Aldi rely on the functions of the line managers to effectively manage the employees. There is a need to ensure that the line managers are not biased in their recommendations. Professionalism should be advocated when assigning the line managers these responsibilities (Paauwe & Boon 2009).
1.4 The impact of the legal and regulatory framework on human resource management.
The human resources activities at Asda and Aldi are effected by several laws and regulation concerning human resources. The law requires that all managers of human resources should not violate any rule. The efforts to ensure the laws are not violated affects the manner in which the activities of human resources at Asda and Aldi are conducted (Katou & Budhwar 2006).
The law on equal pay requires that Asda and Aldi management ensure that all employees performing the same jobs are paid equally without any form of discrimination. Paying other employees worse than others and in the same job group is a violation (Paauwe & Boon 2009).
The law on ensuring a safe and healthy work environment has made the management at Asda and Aldi to offer a conducive working environment for its employees. There are efforts to ensure all hazards in the environment at the two firms are completely eliminated. The laws on recruitment limits the conduction of interviews at the two firma as the recruiting panel has to observe all the requirements. Some questions that might offend the candidate during the interview need to be avoided (Paauwe & Boon 2009).
The law on minimum pay limits the award schemes at the two organizations as they cannot pay their employees anything below the stated amount. The regulation on termination of employment limits the manner in which the companies can fire their employee. All the necessary requirements must be met before an employee is fired. Generally, the legal and regulatory framework impacts the human resources at Asda and Aldi because it sets some conditions that need to be observed by the HR managers (Kay 2007).
2.1 analyze the reasons for human resource planning in Asda
Human resource planning at Asda is significant as it helps the managers mobilize resources at the organization. Through human resource planning, Asda can ensure it has future manpower required in the organization. The planning helps in ensuring that there is a continuous supply of workforce by conducting the recruitment activities at strategic intervals. The drafting of the plans also helps Asda known the number of employee required in the organization at a given point (Johnason 2009).
Through planning the firm can acquire the most talented workforce. The drafting of effective recruitment requirements helps the firm isolate the best employees. It helps Asda hire the most competent employees who can effectively fill the available vacancies. Through planning, the requirements of the organization can be included in the hiring strategies because it creates an avenue to incorporate them in the hiring plans. It also ensures that the number of persons required are identified and only the optimum number is recruited. The hiring of the required number can help the firm significantly save on costs (Huselid & Becker 2011).
Planning of human resources at Asda also ensures that there is efficient use of the available human resources. Through planning Asda acquires the number of employees according to the available jobs. Planning also assists in matching the employees with the jobs available according to their qualifications. Finally, planning of human resources helps in reducing uncertainties in operations at the firm. Changes that occur within the organization are factored into the plans ensuring that there is a reserve for possible changes. The volatility in human resources calls for effective plans that can help mitigate of the effects that might happen as a result of a change (Johnason 2009).
2.2 The stages involved in planning human resource requirements
The planning of human resources includes identifying the needs of the organization and ensuring there is adequate number of employees for meeting the goals. The stages involved are as follows. First, forecasting the demand of the organization in terms of manpower. It involves identifying how many employees the firm should hire and the relevant skills. Second, analyzing the supply of human resources to the organization in comparison to the present conditions. Third, auditing the conditions of the organization to determine its capacity. In this stage the forecast is reconciled with the demand and supply requirements for the organization. There is an effort to ensure a balance between the forecasted figure and he required figures. Shortages and surpluses are identified during the audit (Johnason 2009).
Fourth, conducting the reconciliation on the ground. The HR manager can perform this task using retrenchments, changing the wok conditions, career planning, hiring new employees, training and development, and succession planning. All these approaches are aimed at creating a balance between the available and the needed resources. Finally, monitoring and control to ensure that the plan is being implemented as designed and that the required corrections are being implemented (Boxall & Macky 2009).
2.3 Comparing the recruitment and selection process of Asda and Aldi
Some variances are identifiable in the recruitment and selection process at Asda and Aldi. The hiring process at Aldi is very tight as compared to that at Asda. At Aldi employees take more time filling the forms and attending job interviews. There are multiple interviews at Aldi with employees taking part in face to face invitations or calls to attend the interviews. The final stages involves the actual face-to-face interviews to determine the employee eligibility. There are complex group interviews as well as one to one settings with candidates being interviewed in groups to establish their team work skills (Kuvas & Dysvik 2009).
Asda selection and recruitment process is not as tight as that used by Aldi. There is more focus on obtaining the adequate number of employees through human resource planning. Once a candidate has the require skills the management considers them for employment without conducting vigorous interviews (Johnason 2009).
2.4 Evaluating the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection techniques in Asda and Aldi
The selection and recruitment procedures used by the two firm have effectiveness according the needs of the organizations. By conducting vigorous interviews Aldi ensure that it gets the most competent employee who can serve the customers efficiently in the over 8000 outlets. Being in the service industry, customer relation is very significant and customer loyalty can be built be ensuring the customers receive the best service. The firm believes in team work and therefore, the group interviews are very effective in identifying how the employees can meet the needs of the organization for team work (Aldi 2013).
On the other hand, Asda puts value in its people and ensure that the employees are adequately developed to meet its requirements. Through workforce planning, Asda is able to recruit the optimal number of employees at a given time which helps in saving costs. By focusing on the qualifications of the employees, the firms saves on costs that can be incurred during the interviewing sessions (Asda 2013).
3.1 Assessing the link between motivation theory and reward practices at Asda and comparing it to Aldi.
The motivation theory describes the factors that can ensure the employees are adequately motivated once met. On receiving these motivations the employees remain committed to their works and increase in their performances. The theory states that things like salaries, good working conditions, employee recognition and many others once provided boost the morale of the employees towards the job. However, it remains a challenge to ensure the employee are happy all the time because their needs keep changing with the changing situations. Also, the employees are always seeking for better pay and better work environments (Paauwe & Boon 2009).
The HRM practice at Asda put value in the employees and seeks the best reward system to motivate the employees. At Asda there is a recognition that, the motivation of the employees is closely related to the awards they receive for doing their jobs. By putting in place good reward strategies the firm is able to motivate its employees increasing their job performance. There is employee recognition at Asda that increase the moral of the employee towards their job because they feel part of the organization. Creation of a better work environment is another consideration that the firm has adopted to motivate the employees. Aldi uses the same approach of providing the motivators to increase the performance of the employees (Boxall & Macky 2009).
Therefore, there is a close link in the motivation theory and the reward system adopted by the two firms. The firms are providing the things identifies in the motivation theory to increase the morale of the employees towards their work and increase performance (Kay 2007).
3.2. The process of job evaluation and factors determining pay within an organization
Job evaluation helps in determining the size and worth of a responsibility performed by a worker. It helps in coming up with an effective way of rewarding the employees. The evaluation also informs on the best ways to match employees for jobs basing on their skills. It is a way of determining the best way to award and motivate the workers (Johnason 2009).
Several factors are looked into before a pay for a worker is established. The factors are, the size of the firm, industry sector, job group, level of the employee, profitability of the firm, and the skills and experience the worker has. On considering these factors the HR manager comes up with an effective pay for the employee (Kuvas & Dysvik 2009).
3.3 effectiveness of reward systems in different contexts
There is the use of tangible rewards like bonuses, gifts, compensations, salaries, commissions, and promotions that organizations can use. There are intangible reward methods such as trust building, recognition, feedback that firms use in motivating the workers. The effectiveness of these reward systems depends on the way of execution (Kiyani & Akhtar 2011).
The tangible systems are effective in improving the job attendance by the employees. The use of bonuses encourages the employee to report to duty constantly to enjoy more benefits. The intangible systems such as trust encourages the employees to remain committed on their jobs. They feel part of the organization and that they have a say in what takes place in the organization (Paauwe & Boon 2009).
3.4. The methods organizations use to monitor the performance of employees in Asda and Aldi.
First, observing and giving feedback on the performance of the employees. The HR managers conduct random checks on the employees during work hours so as to establish how well they are performing. This is also a responsibility conducted by the line managers who produce a report and submit to the top managers. Another approach is the use of performance standards as set by the line managers. There are standards that are in place and all employees are supposed to meet them within a given time frame. The third approach is use of performance evaluation which involves rating the actual performance of the workers (Budhwar & Debrah 2005).
4.1. Reasons for cessation of employment with the organizations.
The employees of these organizations cease employment due the reasons that relate to the organization or due to personal reasons. The reasons include end of a contract, employee moving to other firms, and retiring employees. He employees engaged on a contract basis at the firms leave the organization when their contract expires and it is not renewed. On reaching the retiring age the employees are allowed to leave the organizations to because they cannot perform their duties effectively. When an employee wants to move to another organization due to personal reasons they leave the organizations and pursue their personal dreams (Boxall Purcell 2009).
Continuous disagreements between the employer and the employees might lead to job cessation. These events are not avoidable in organizations and firms should have adequate mechanisms to handle the challenges that comes with job cessation (Johnason 2009).
4.2. Employment exit procedures used by two organizations.
On identification of adequate reasons to terminate the services of their employees, the two firms use several procedures to exit the employees. First, informing the employees about the expected termination and the reasons. The firms provide a platform for the employees to air their views regarding the termination. Second, if the exit by the employee is on a voluntary basis and they performed a vital responsibility, they are asked to orient the person replacing them before they leave. The request is to ensure there is minimum disruption in the firms when the person leaves (Kay 2007).
Third, there is a request for the employee to submit all the company possessions if any before leaving the firm. Fourth, the employee is given an official letter of job termination form the HR manager and the accompanying recommendation letter. These firms are continuously trying to create a good relation with the employees who leave the firm. The HR manager ensure that all the legal requirement in relation to job termination are observed (Paauwe & Boon 2009).
4.3. Impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangement.
The legal and regulatory framework has an impact on the activities that proceed cessation of jobs in this organizations. Asda and Aldi considers all the legal framework requirements before they end the services of their employees. The requirements to offer all the compensation due to the employee when leaving the firm is considered by the HR managers of these organization (Johnason 2009).
The legal requirement to fire employees at the end of the contract is considered as no employee can be fired before their contract ends under normal circumstances. There is a procedure for firing employees that is outlined in the labor laws that the two firms observe. Therefore, the activities at Aldi and Asda during job cessation are heavily impacted on by the legal and the regulatory framework. There are some things that can be done and others that cannot be done by the HR manager (Kay 2007).
Human resources department remains the cornerstone in determining how efficient an organization performs. The department performs most basic activities such as hiring new employee, maintaining them, and terminating them based on the organizations requirements. There are professionals who have designed strategies that help the HR managers in performing their tasks. However, these activities are impacted on by the legal and the regulatory requirements relating to human resources practices. There are laws and regulations that the HR managers need to observe before undertaking any activity (Grubb & Wells 2010).
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