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Health Behavior Models & Theories
The manner in which a human being acts is greatly important in enhancing good health avoidance of illnesses. Adopting acts that pose fewer threats to the physical, psychological and social wellbeing of an individual have been demonstrated to lower the incidences of and death rates as well as promoting the quality of existence (Shumaker, Ockene & Riekert, 2009, p.14). There are several models that have been utilized to describe the relationship between behaviour adoption and health status. Health Belief Model (HBM) refers to a mental belief that that tries to describe and foresee a health practice.
This belief makes an assumption that the chances of an individual adopting a certain health practice involves several aspects such as the extent in which an individual view how he or she is prone to an infection, perceived magnitude of a disease outcome, obstacles to adopting a health practice as well as advantages of that practice (Shumaker, Ockene & Riekert, 2009, p.19). This theory has been utilized to formulate effective measures to alter practices related to health. Measures relying on this theory may strive to raise the perceived outcomes and severity of a health situation by campaigning about frequency of illness, projected threats like social effects and funds as well as knowledge concerning disease outcome. These measures may also assist people to adopt practices that promote health (Shumaker, Ockene & Riekert, 2009, p.21).
Additionally, they may strive to increase self-efficacy through provision of trainings concerning various practices that facilitates health. Despite these, this theory has several shortcomings. It does not take into account other variables that have impacts on health practices for example practices developed from habit such as cigarette smoking may be independent from decisions made related to health (Shumaker, Ockene & Riekert, 2009, p.24). Furthermore, people adopt some practices which are not related to health like doing exercise particularly for aesthetic reasons. Several aspects within the surroundings of an individual may create barriers to adopting a practice that promotes health. For example, a person residing in unsafe surrounding may lack the ability to exercise outdoors. Moreover, this belief does not incorporate the consequence of emotions in a practice linked to health (Shumaker, Ockene & Riekert, 2009, p.27).
Shumaker, S., Ockene, J., & Riekert, K. (2009). The handbook of health behavior change. New York: Springer Pub. Co.