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Developmental psychology is a scientific approach used in studying lifetime changes using a scientific perspective. This approach aims to explain how growth occurs, change and steadiness throughout a lifetime. Developmental psychology goes deep into how humans think, feel, and behaviour in response to changes throughout a person’s life. Some psychology theories focus mostly on childhood development; this is because; at childhood, a lot of changes and behaviour moulding occur. In developmental psychology, some processes are likely to occur in an individual as part of growth; social, biological, cognitive as well as emotional. These human changes occur as a result of environmental as well as social factors; they influence behaviour for a lifetime. (Mandich&Cronin, 2015).Theories used to express human cognitive, intelligence level, and experience learnt from the surrounding. Scholars such as Piaget, Kohlberg, Erickson, Maslow and Freud come up with theories which can be used in understanding human development in a lifetime.(Mandich &Cronin,2015,P40).This theory can be used to explain individual life experience in a lifetime period.
According to Fraud, his theory can be applied in society: Tracy, she eager to learn new things as she grows and curiosity is high from oral to genital parts. Once was asked by a female baby aged 8, why do girls squad when urinating while boys stand? And our private parts are not the same. This question was so hard but defined to her what girls mean to boys. Mary is being guided by Id which is the unconscious aspect, she is about to make a decision between school and getting married to her boyfriend, the ego, unconscious character which works in favour of Id, in her does not allow her to listen to any advice given nor to consider school as an essential thing in her life, this is due to the “goodness” of the boyfriend to her. The superego which is the conscious part, she reflects her parent’s warning and advice about the life she decides to complete her school and marry him later. (Miller,2016
Travis might have a scheme about buying a soda from a roadside café on her way back from lunch. The system is a kind of patterns of how actions in the form of behaviour will occur. This starts from stopping at that kiosk, inquiring the brand, price, drinking the soda and returning the bottle and paying the owner. All this information is existing in Travis mind, yet it is not even lunchtime, this is called ‘script.’During Lunchtime, he will go for his lunch, and on his way back, he is likely to follow his script well. This kind of behaviour can be said to be memorizing some information about what an individual is up to. Travis is going to apply the script in the form of memory to the circumstance.
An infant after birth, due to the small inborn scheme, Liam cannot identify the nipple, but instead, it is directed to his mouth. Sucking is defined as an experience when it sucks milk comes out. As days go by, the infant grows, the schema enlarges, and the baby can easily suckle on touching. Liam starts to develop grasping schema once the palm is touched he quickly grasp the palm and when someone moves his cheeks they quickly turn towards that direction.
At the preoperational stage, when Liam receives sweets, it is so hard for him to share them not even with the mother. At this stage, children are selfish as their schema is enlarging and self comes before others. Everything Liam touches at this stage automatically becomes him, and he can fight back if one tries taking away.
At a particular stage, the scheme is now developed. Liam can deal with concrete information like numbers, weight without difficulties. Liam is already in school since he can understand numbers and other touchable information. Most learning material is tangible objects.
Formal operation stage, the schema is fully developed, at this level Liam is thinking logically, he is making decisions in life, he is given a chance to decide the school he wants for next degree in education. He is a young adult, and his choices are respected at this level of development.
Aunt Lisa, she is 60 years old. She is enjoying life going around the world using her pension money. Looking at her, she seems so successful and living a happy life. Even though she has cervical cancer, in reality, she is heading to the grave. Although every day comes with a new challenge in her health, she is so positive about life. The idea of her near death does not hinder her happiness; she is a happy lady. Whenever we visit her, all her sharing is about the funny moments captured in our lives from childhood. She always reminds us of her achievements in life.
Stage one (Trust vs Mistrust)
At this stage, Baby Pendo only trust her mother; this is due to love, affection and attention she received from her. At this stage, if Pendo is mishandled in the hands of a caregiver who the mother entrusts her to. She is going to develop distrust on everyone, and the view on the world will change forever
Stage two (Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt)
At this level, Pendo can use a toilet on her own, feed herself, and she can play around with her toys as the family watch her. The mother encourages her no matter how mess the areas look like after feeding herself. Even though she does not clear the toilet after using, she is invited to keep using; this helps her esteem and self-confidence in development.
Stage three (Initiative vs guilty)
At this stage, Pendo is a grown young woman. She is having a lot of plans for being a holiday; she wants to visit her boyfriend, attend the overnight party. The parents are so strict on her; she is not allowed to get outside the compound without her parent’s company. She decides to sneak out when everyone is sleeping to the boyfriend house. She succeeded and sneaked back home, but she is so guilty the next morning. The mother talks to her about the relationship but not in a profound manner for her to understand why she is guilty yet not a baby anymore.
Stage four (industry vs inferiority)
At this level, Pendo is exposed to a lot of pressure, both from home and school. This anxiety if not well managed she is going to have esteem issue as well as inferior feeling in later life development. Teachers at school encourage her to work hard in her class work and parents at home, support her on home responsibilities, being the firstborn. This will enable her to feel competent in her later life.
Stage five (identity vs confusion)
At this level of development, Pendo is expected to be able to identify her role as a young woman in life. This is done through her actions at home school, how she relates with people around her. Her achievements in school also will determine her future life. If she misses this out, she may be confused in her whole life.
Stage six (intimacy vs isolation)
At this level in life, Pendo is ready for marriage, start serious relationships. If this level is not well utilized, she may turn into isolation. Identifying herself with the opposite gender and the
world as well. This will enable her to deal with the fear of being rejected and relationship break ups.
Stage seven ( generativity vs stagnation)
At this level, Pendo is of age and all she is interested in his helping people in her community also advising young generation. If she does not encourage such, she is going to be selfish and remain stagnant in life.
Stage eight (integrity vs despair)
At this level, Pendo is of age, and she can only reap what she planted. She is enjoying the fruits of her children who she spent her resources on educating. But if she did not spend her resources well, she is going to regret forever. This was the case when one of her sons dropped out, and she let him go.
Maslow theory (Tay& Diener, 2011)
My mother, on her way to self-actualization, she has been trying new things in life, she only listens to herself using experience, she is honest to everyone around her, and she does not pretend at all. She sleeps late and takes every responsibility in the family.S he encourages us to observe priorities n life. Also on the importance of having the basic needs in life.
During teaching, as a teacher, I am supposed to give all students equal time to read or answer a question. Providing equal opportunities to learners will bring about equality among learners. In conclusion, these theories have been used to show the real-life application in lifetime development in the human being
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Mandich, B. M. &Cronin, A. (2015).Human Development and Performance Throughout the Lifespan.US: Cengage Learning.
Polan, U.E & Taylor, R.D. (2019).Journey Across the Life Span: Human Development and Health Promotion.US. F.A. Davis.
Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354-356. doi:10.1037/a00
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