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Essay on Interrogating Technology

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Interrogating Technology

Introduction

While technology is one of the critical influences in our lives and remains a topic that deserves further research. It is generally accepted by sociologists, politicians, educationists and industrialists that technology has become a heart of the society. Technology plays a critical role in social development and economic stimulation (Rahman, 2009). In the past few decades, technology was used as a survival tool for making life more comfortable. Currently, the world is experiencing a shift in technology’s position that is expected to continue in the future generations. The modern day technology is no longer a survival tool, but a means of entertainment and communication. Through mass communication, it is easy for people to connect with one another no matter the distance between them (Rahman, 2009). However, there are concerns about the positive and negative influences of technology in the modern world. People are connected with one another using different forms of electronic devices. The recent revolutions in communication and computing have indicated that progress in technology will continue taking place rapidly. Technological advancements have led to a decline in communication costs due to increased competition (Rahman, 2009). Although improvement is embraced in all spheres of life, there are significant challenges faced by all society domains.  Technology advancement has led to rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI). While robots are treated as objects with humanlike characters in science fiction, AI contains all aspects of innovations from Google search to autonomous weapons to IBM’s Watson. The goal of AI is to motivate the society in different research areas such as technical topics, law and economics (Benferhat, Tabia & Ali, 2017). AI can perform various tasks such as controlling cars, pacemakers, automated trading system, and aeroplanes.

Theoretical Concepts and Methodologies

Across the globe, several researchers have developed robots that are capable of displaying autonomy and machine intelligence properties. Artificial intelligence has objects designed in such a way that they can act as planners, navigators or perform other sensory functions (Benferhat, Tabia & Ali, 2017). Such objects have seen artificial intelligence taking root in people’s daily lives and have several impacts on growth. For instance, artificial intelligence encouraged the development of internet search predictions, recognition of voices, filtering of spam emails and weather forecasts. It is predicted that as Artificial intelligence changes from science fiction to reality, there will be changes that are efficient and immeasurable.

 This study will focus on secondary methods of data collection to gain information from various authors in regards to the topic.  Consequently, the primary data collection method will be a literature review. Here, information will be collected from information technology books, peer-reviewed journals, websites and articles. The information collected will be accompanied by in-text citations for credibility. Agencies will be notified through emails and phone call to get an appointment to ease data collection. Information technology companies will be useful since they have unlimited information regarding recent technological advancements.  While collecting information from secondary sources, various keywords such as effects of technology people’s lives, Artificial intelligence, the impact of artificial intelligence, government policies on artificial intelligence and scientific models of technology will be considered. This research will take a maximum of three months to cover all the requirements and meet the relevant stakeholders.

Scientific models will be used to understand people’s perception of the development of artificial intelligence. Science is explained through models and theories that are defined by the use of experiments. Machines are an essential part of scientific theories since they play an integral part of learning through data. Consequently, constructivism models will be used in the theoretical approaches since they investigate on how people come up with systems for understanding their experiences and the world (Kazakci, 2014). Additionally, behaviourism theories will be considered since they hold to the belief that all things done by human being including feeling acting and thinking as deemed behaviour.

Artificial intelligence and its effects

The importance of artificial intelligence does not require re-emphasising since the benefits outweigh the risks (Barrett & Baum, 2017).  However, while advancing technologies shape the global market, it is important to contemplate on the regulation of AI. It is evident that technology has a social impact that should be controlled before it gets out of hand (Barrett & Baum, 2017).  To address the problem, various stakeholders should be involved including the government, UN agencies and American Research Institute.

This research will represent the federal government as the primary stakeholder since it is involved in the control of technological impacts to the society. It is expected that before the end one year period. The government objectives of this project are to:

Conduct research and come up with best practices for AI technologies and enhance public understanding in an open forum where they will be engaged in a discussion regarding AI and its impact on the society ( “Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence – Future of Life Institute”, n.d.).

Enhance public awareness of the potential costs, benefits, concern and make regular updates on the progress and current status of AI.

In a mission for ensuring maximum society benefits, the governments intend to partner with Information Technology to answer questions, conduct research, consult relevant parties and respond to public questions from the media and the public ( “Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence – Future of Life Institute”, n.d.).

Ensuring regularly engage appointment with relevant people from various disciplines including psychology, economics, law, public policies and philosophy in discussing emerging issues about AI ( “Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence – Future of Life Institute”, n.d.)..

Engaging developers, users and other representatives from the sectors affected by AI such as telecommunication, finance, healthcare, transport and commerce to develop and research on user-friendly AI technology.

Government views on Artificial intelligence

AI is considered as one of essential elements of the fourth industrial revolution. The technology cuts across all spheres including digital, physical and technological development. 

According to Barret & Baum (2017) the previously thought to be complicated technologies have now been simplified by innovations. Artificial intelligence has led to different advancements such as the autonomous operation of vehicles. Currently, a variety of tasks can be performed by robots and other automated methods of accomplishing complex tasks. While it is clear that countries are now on the path of achieving notable advancements on AI field, they are still far from gaining the full AI (Benferhat, Tabia & Ali, 2017). In this study, it is critical to understand the improvements that have occurred concerning AI. AI typically means that machines can mimic human behaviour to the point that it is difficult to differentiate them from people. Full AI is quite far from reality and for it to be achieved; immense power in computing will be required. For instance, machines do not have the ability for responding to emotional situations.

Additionally, Barret & Baum (2017), note that the foundation for machine responses is based on experience. These experiences come from training acquired after using various sets of data to simulate situations that people would like to understand. The machine’s capability for data interpretation is the key to gaining complex AI responses (Benferhat, Tabia & Ali, 2017).  Although the development of artificial intelligence is winning attraction, the next decades will see it become a significant investment area. Robotic development involves various repetitions that use robotic data for managing the task.

After careful understanding of AI, the government plans to come up with relevant and timely policies that would be useful in addressing the impact of Artificial intelligence on the society (“How to manage AI’s risks and benefits”, n.d.). The government sees it health to engage other policy makers in a dialogue for empowering the citizens on the importance of critical thinking on AI future and its impact on people’s lives. It is the government desire that in the next five years, various considerations will be made in regards AI. Consequently, the government hopes to:

Ensure that all AI developers come up with user-centred technology that will not pose a risk to their security.  The government is also of the view that all decisions made by the developers will not cause a threat to public safety or lead to discriminatory practices (“How to manage AI’s risks and benefits”, n.d.). Additionally, legal issues should be considered when AI agents replace government agencies. The economic and social impacts of technology should always be put into consideration so that opportunities can be open to all people. Lastly, there has to be transparent governance so that all stakeholders in the government, civil society and private sector can participate actively for safe deployment of AI.

Policy position

For all technological advancements to be successful, it should be inclusive of stakeholder and users needs.  This requires the inclusion of all ecosystems to fuel innovations and enable the government to gain access to non-sensitive and qualitative public data. The civil society and IT industries to hold a sitting to ensure that all research applications are business oriented. In all stakeholder inclusive technologies, developers need access to funding so that long-term innovations can be realized. Finally, it is critical to create an open system so that regulatory frameworks can be supported and meet the public needs. When combined with other converging and emerging technologies, AI has the potential for transforming the society through the decision making towards the improvement of human conditions (“How to manage AI’s risks and benefits”, n.d.). However, lack of sufficient risk assessment may threaten the social structures and economic systems. For the purpose of this policy positioning paper, the benefits should be maximized while the risks are minimized and the society

References

Barrett, A. M., & Baum, S. D. (2017). Risk analysis and risk management for the artificial superintelligence research and development process. In The Technological Singularity (pp. 127-140). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence – Future of Life Institute. Retrieved from https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/

Benferhat, S., Tabia, K. & Ali, M. (2017). Advances in artificial intelligence : from theory to practice : 30th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2017, Arras, France, June 27-30, 2017, Proceedings. Cham: Springe

How to manage AI’s risks and benefits. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/01/how-to-manage-ais-risks-and-benefits

Kazakci, A. O. (2014). Conceptive artificial intelligence: Insights from design theory. arXiv preprint arXiv:1404.0640.

Rahman, H. (2009). Selected readings on global information technology : contemporary applications. Hershey: Information Science Reference.

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