Deployment of Solar Powered Deslation Plants in Abu Dhabi - United Arab Emirates - Essay Prowess

Deployment of Solar Powered Deslation Plants in Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates


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Possible Investment and Deployment of Solar Powered Deslation Plants in Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates


International need for water remains intense as freshwater bases are becoming more limited owing to growing need for natural assets and the influences of weather alteration, predominantly in semi-arid and coastal regions.[1] Purification of saltwater and saline water can be utilized to supplement the growing need for fresh water provisions. However, purification is a method that requires rigorous energy, frequently using energy source from fossil fuel, which are susceptible to unpredictable worldwide market charges and logistical supply complications in isolated and island populations and are consequently not maintainable.[2]

Many purification plants have been situated in areas with great accessibility and little expenses of energy. Contemporary evidence on purification denotes that merely 1% of overall purified water is established on energy from renewable bases.[3] Renewables are becoming progressive and expertise charges remain to decline hence making renewable energy a feasible alternative. Due to the growing demand for desalted water in energy-importing states like United Arab Emirates, there is a huge market prospective for renewable energy-powered purification structures across the globe.[4]

Moreover, the growing usage of fossil fuel energy has possible dangers to the regional and worldwide surroundings. Now, states in the Middle East face a major water trial owing to the scarceness and swift reduction of freshwater assets.[5] It is more complicated by the weighty monetary and commercial liability in offering desalted and treated wastewater. Solar purification is a method utilized to purify water by means of solar energy. Purification plants play an indispensable part where growing request for clean water outperforms the accessibility of natural resources. It makes use of multiple-effect humidification to vaporize and condense seawater while eliminating its salty content. The increasing water scarcities worldwide have been motivating the want for inventive explanations to purification. [6]

The Solar Cucumber looks like a huge surface with a bowed glass solar plate topmost. Within the fluctuating components, salty water is collected and vaporized in an air-tight vacuity that is scattered by solar power. The component could be installed fluctuating at sea or on land to deliver water in catastrophe or circumstances of conservational reprieve.[7] Multiple-effect humidification imitates the ordinary ecological water sequence. In the occasion of the Solar Cucumber, it utilizes solar power and Reverse Osmosis to isolated water from other constituents like salt. Condensation is only probable in each compartment since the discharge of latent temperature is utilized to vaporize saltwater in a superimposing compartment.[8]

The air steadily cools down as it is drained through the discontinuous compression and vaporization compartments by a fan. The calmest humid air that emerges from the ultimate vaporization compartment is utilized to produce current using a Latent Power Turbine.[9] It includes the use of a great space solar accumulator, multi effect refinement and steaming at lowered force. The conformation developed is a spherical cistern, with diameter of one kilometre having water to a deepness of 10 meters with an airtight dual glassy dome that operates at 0.1 atmosphere pressures with a functioning temperature lower than 50° C. A solar absorber positioned just beyond the water level amply pricked but covering the whole zone, sets up convection flows that vaporize the sea water and condense the steam.[10]

Inward water from the sea recuperates energy from departing clean water and saltwater in a counter current temperature exchanger. Water movement is compelled by solar refinement and hydrostatic force. It is projected that the arrangement would have 95% energy efficacy and an increased productivity proportion of 20.[11The system will utilize the innovative non-stick-style tools to decrease conservation as well as build an effectual and self-cleaning arrangement that generates transformed water and sea salt at cradle while decreasing the requirement for expensive and unrealistic conveyance of seawater.[12]

The Reverse Osmosis Solar Installation (ROSI) utilizes membrane separation to offer unswerving and fresh water for drinking from bases like saline groundwater. Energy from the sun overwhelms the typically high-energy operational prices as well as greenhouse discharges of conservative reverse osmosis.[13] ROSI can also eliminate trace impurities like arsenic and uranium that can lead to various health complications, and minerals like calcium carbonate which results to water hardness.

In modern years, the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development, a clean energy corporation possessed by the administration Abu Dhabi’s, have industrialized and sponsored a key solar plant in Mauritania, a wind ranch in the Seychelles, and design to introduce renewable energy missions in five Pacific island countries as well.[14] The town of Abu Dhabi inside the United Arab Emirates with greater than one million occupants obtains their water resource for consumption exclusively from desalted seawater. Purified seawater and water from the ground forms two focal sources of water in Abu Dhabi Emirate.[15]

The contemporary deployment of renewable-based purification, that is, a lesser amount of 1% of purification aptitude based on conservative fossil fuels, does not replicate the benefits of the expertise selection. Sustainable purification is regularly constructed on the Reverse Osmosis process (62%), trailed by thermal methods such as MSF and MED.[16] The prevailing power source is solar photovoltaic (PV), which is utilized in some 43% of the prevailing presentations, followed by solar thermal and wind energy. The correct amalgamation of a sustainable energy source with a salt removal technology can be fundamental to match both the need for power and water economically, resourcefully and in an ecologically friendly manner.[17]

Although groundwater is utilized for farming, water for drinking is delivered nearly exclusively from desalted seawater across the Emirate. In 2013, Abu Dhabi sprang a sustainable energy purification preliminary plan that aimed at investigating and developing energy-efficient, cost-competitive distillation skills appropriate to be driven by sustainable energy, in this situation energy from the sun. The long-standing objective was to put into practice purification plants powered by sustainable energy in the United Arab Emirates.[18]

A subsequent cohort preliminary seawater purification plant will be established and activated. It will assess a variety of inventive methodologies in enhancing the functioning effectiveness.[19] The programme will consist of dual phases, the preliminary point which will function constantly for not less than 18 months. The performances of the establishments will be evaluated and thoroughly scrutinized and verified. The second phase will be execution and expansion which will be done after 2016. It will comprise of the scaling-up of expertise that meet predefined standards as commercially feasible, large-scale seawater purification plants. The plants will be entirely powered by solar energy.[20]

Although salt removal continues to be expensive, deteriorating sustainable energy expertise deployment charges are projected to lower the price in the upcoming years. It will be of specific concern to isolated areas and islands with lesser inhabitants and deprived infrastructure for freshwater and power transmission and dissemination.[21] Plotting water requirements and sustainable energy sources will be a tactical tool for preparing new distillation structures. Sustainable energy-powered purification will be a crucial facilitator for sustained development, particularly in the states that depend on desalted water for supporting indigenous populations and prolific utilizations like irrigation. Equally, sustainable energy production will be perceived as a treasured cost-effective venture that will diminish exterior, societal, ecological as well as operative expenses.[22]

Policy designers will consequently aspire to take the developing market chances and extensive influences of expertise resolutions into examination when programming their competence, organization and maintainable water resource requirements. Purification appeal is anticipated to increase swiftly.[23] Purification established on the use of solar energy sources will afford a sustainable approach to yield fresh water. It is projected to turn into economically good-looking as the prices of renewable technologies keeps on to reduce as the rates of fossil fuels continue to escalate.[24] Utilizing the locally accessible renewable energy assets such as solar energy for purification will be a cost-effective resolution predominantly in regions that are isolated, have low inhabitants concentration as well as deprived infrastructure for fresh water and power transmission and dissemination.

Evaluating the methodological viability and price efficiency of renewable salt removal plants necessitates a comprehensive examination that includes a range of aspects like locality, eminence of feed-water input and fresh-water productivity, the accessible sustainable energy source, plant volume and dimension as well as the accessibility of grid power.[25] Operational and preservation necessities, feed-water conveyance and pre-treatment requirements are also part of the policymaking course. Various expertise resolutions are more appropriate to huge establishments, whereas others are better for small-scale uses.[26]

In addition, the worldwide demand is anticipated to develop by 9% every year between 2010 and 2016, with a collective speculation of around USD 88 billion. In the MENA region, water requirement is anticipated to upsurge from 9 billion m3in 2010 up to 13.3 billion m3in 2030 whereas water from the ground resources are expected to decline.[27] As a result, water purification dimensions in the MENA region is projected to develop speedily from 21 million m3/d in 2007 to approximately 110 million m3/d by 2030, of which 70% is in Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Algeria and Libya.[28]

The rate of purification is principally subjugated by the energy charges. As a result, the commercial viability of desalination relies intensely on native accessibility and price of energy. Assessments between diverse purification technologies should be grounded on identical indigenous situations.[29] Site-specific facets, which similarly possess a vital influence on ultimate prices include feed-water conveyance, fresh water distribution to end-consumers, salt-water removal as well as the dimensions of the plant.

Various factors have greatly contributed to the use of solar energy in purifying water in Abu Dhabi. As far as investment, operational and preservation price is concerned, an assessment of two greatly utilized conservative purification systems, that is RO and MSF, demonstrates that the MSF plant needs greater principal expenses whereas the RO plant necessitates greater operational and upkeep expenses owing to the plant intricacy.[30] Distinctive functioning and conservation charges are likely to be around 2 to 2.5% of the investment price annually. As for the whole purification charge, momentous declines have taken place over the previous years, but water purification continues to be economically cheap solitary for middle-income states and too costly for deprived nations.[31]

With the speedy reduction of sustainable energy charges, methodological developments and growing quantity of connections, renewable distillation is expected to decrease considerably its price in the proximate future and develop an imperative basis of water source for areas affected by water inadequacy. The international capability of purification plants, comprising sustainable salt removal, is anticipated to develop at a yearly proportion of greater than 9% between 2010 and 2016, with an aggregate venture of approximately USD 88 billion. The market is expected to develop in both industrialized and developing nations such as the United States, China, Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). [32]

Furthermore, a very substantial prospective also occurs in countryside and isolated regions, as well as landmasses where grid electricity or fossil fuels to produce energy may not be accessible at reasonable charges. Approximately 54% of the world’s development is anticipated to ensue in MENA region.[33] The International Energy Agency estimates that in the MENA region, due to the increasing inhabitants and exhaustion of shallow and groundwater resources, the whole water requirement will upsurge from 9 billion m3 in 2010 up to 13.3 billion m3 in 2030.[34]

As a result, the purification capability in the MENA area is anticipated to develop from 21 million m3/d in 2007 to approximately 110 million m3/d by 2030. It will lead to the outpouring in energy utilization in the area. Numerous Pacific landmasses also encounter water insufficiency which presents food, monetary and wellbeing safety concerns. These states are curious to hasten sustainable energy distribution to expand their energy combination and diminish dependence on fossil fuels. As a result, the execution of minor stand-alone sustainable salt removal systems can offer practical resolutions to both water and power matters in the region.[35]

Nevertheless, regardless of the benefits related with purification plants in Abu Dhabi, challenges of its execution have also been pin pointed. They comprise of the discarding of saline. Great salt-content seawater is the purification leftover to be discarded or reused. At the moment, it is frequently cleared into the sea or adulterated and scattered into an exposed space.[36] However, the deleterious influence of saline on the environments and the mounting purification capability imply that an ecological resolution is required for removal or saltwater reprocessing to evade conservational impressions. Further, additional collaboration and amalgamation is required between corporations from the energy segment and firms from the water sector, and additional consideration needs to be compensated to blockades for developing states, comprising of high venture and operational charges, as well as competent employees to manage the plants.[37]


With the UAE’s increasing budget and growing inhabitants, it is critical to recognise a maintainable purification solution to meet the long-term water requirements. Linking salt removal technologies to sustainable energy will allow UAE to exploit its plentiful assets such as solar as a resolution to increase water safety.[38] The operating expenses of the solar purification plant would be very small with its fuel free. The mandate of degree calculation designates that enormous solar purification could contest with contemporary purification technologies.


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