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Cognitive Developmental Delays
Cognitive Developmental Issue
Cognitive development, just like physical development happens at different paces for different children, therefore, children of the same age may possess different reasoning and thinking skills. The difference is linked to factors like disabilities, mental health disorders, trauma, and different learning styles. The paper covers a cognitive developmental issue known as dyslexia. According to an article on “Understanding Dyslexia in Children through Human Development Theories” published in the Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, Dyslexia is neurological, cognitive learning disability. The article covers different aspects of the disorder including, epidemiology and aetiology of dyslexia, types of dyslexia, stages of childhood human development theory, screening, diagnostic tests and interventions required for children suffering from dyslexia.
Dyslexia refers to the problems of struggling how to read words and decoding languages that are in print, the difficulties are related to damage in the brain. In regards to epidemiology, Al-Shidhani & Arora, (2012) concluded that the prevalence of dyslexia is estimated to be 5-10%, with the ratio of boys to girls varying in different countries. In regards to aetiology, the authors state that the exact aetiology of the disorder is not known, but numerous factors can be said to be the contributing factors, with genetics taking the top position. In regards to types of dyslexia, Al-Shidhani & Arora, (2012) state that the different types include acquired, peripheral and central dyslexia.
Children suffering from this cognitive developmental issue manifest similar stages of development to those without it. At early stages of 2-5 years, children have clear images, which is why their nightmares can be terrifying. At this stage, dyslexia is barely detected. At the second stage of 5-7 years, children acknowledge significance of what they see, imagination is still more vital compared to knowledge. The last stage is defined as childhood stage. The authors are not specific on the exact age limits but at this last stage, children with dyslexia can easily be spotted.
In regards to the human development theory, the article covers both stages of the theory, the stage independent conception and the stage dependent conception (Al-Shidhani & Arora, (2012). In regards to screening, the article states that different screening methods can be used at different stages of childhood. It goes further to gives an example of a screening program known as the Crombie’s screening program conducted during preschool years. The article further covers on the importance of conducting diagnostic tests and ends with giving the four approaches that should be applied to manage children with dyslexia.
Dyslexia is a learning condition characterized by difficulties in reading due to struggles in identifying sounds. Dyslexic children struggle with phonics and phonemic awareness. Children with dyslexia however have normal vision and intelligence just like those without. With the right interventions, they have the ability to succeed in school just like others. The downside to the condition is that it has no cure, some children are even unlucky to have this condition undiagnosed after so long (Fawcett & Nicolson, 2017).
Symptoms of dyslexia include, lateness in talking, difficulty in catching up with nursery rhymes, struggling to form words in the right manner, sounding out simple words, avoiding writing and reading, and struggling to perform simple calculations. Diagnosis of the disease can only be done through full evaluation done either privately or at school, or undertaking hearing, vision and brain tests. In regards to treatment, there is not a single correct way of treating the disorder because it is incurable, however, early detection and application of the right intervention methods plays a huge role in improving a child’s reading and learning ability (Myklebust & Johnson, 1962). Some of these interventions include reading aloud to children, slotting and encouraging reading time for children with dyslexia, addressing the problem at an early stage, encouraging individualized programs whose basis is employing multisensory teaching methods, employing assisted learning techniques where there is learning from peers, and application of supportive tactics almost similar to individualized programs but selectively chosen by teachers. Other reading programs known to help include the Wilson Method, RAVE-O, the Lindamood-Bell Program, Preventing Academic Failure Program, and the Orton-Gillinghan Approach.
Dyslexic children suffer emotional and social impacts too. Children with the condition and are yet to be diagnosed suffer from low self -esteem because they suspect something is wrong with them. In some cases, children may feel stigmatized when laughed at by other children (Myklebust & Johnson, 1962).
The journal article is relevant to what learned in this course in the sense that it demonstrated the application of what was taught in class. For instance, difference in developmental milestones is not always a reason to worry about because different children develop at their own pace, however, it is important to note that distinct delays in development should not be taken lightly, and delays should be visible not only through physical milestones like walking which most people focus on, but also delayed gaining of skills at different stages. In addition, the article confirms the importance of noting that developmental delays are mainly caused by complications during birth, environmental issues, medical conditions and genetic factors. Developmental delays can therefore not be pegged to one factor. My personal observation is that majority of children, especially those parents lead busy lifestyles and have no time to spend with their kids, can end up with undiagnosed dyslexia, only for it to be discovered at very late stages.
Al-Shidhani, T. A., & Arora, V. (2012). Understanding Dyslexia in Children Through Human Development Theories = فهم عسر القراءة لدى الأطفال من خلال نظريات التطور البشري. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 12(3), 286–294. doi: 10.12816/0003141
Fawcett, A., & Nicolson, R. (2017). Dyslexia in children. Routledge.
Myklebust, H. R., & Johnson, D. (1962). Dyslexia in children. Exceptional children, 29(1), 14-26.