Challenges Facing Women in Policing Annotated Bibliography
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Challenges Facing Women in Policing Annotated Bibliography
Women in Policing
Archbold, C. A., & Schulz, D. M. (2012). Research on women in policing: A look at the past, present, and future. Sociology Compass, 6(9), 694-706. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9020.2012.00501.x
This comprehensive study points out that women began serving within police departments in the 1870s. At first, the female gender on took care of women and children in police cells. When department responsibilities increased, they were not allowed to carry firearms and even after the nondiscrimination policy was actualized, the percentage in comparison to men was notably lower. Previous researchers provided for numerous similarities between genders in policing. For instance, decision making prior to arrests, motivation to joining law enforcement, and attitudes towards promotion opportunities were generally at par. This study concludes that as parity between the genders is observed in police departments relative to numbers then differences in how the two genders perceive policing work are bound to fade away.
Guajardo, S. A. (2016). Women in policing: A longitudinal assessment of female officers in supervisory positions in the New York City Police Department. Women & Criminal Justice, 26(1), 20-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/08974454.2014.997418.
Guajardo investigates the reasons behind lower female officers taking up command and supervisory position within police departments. This particular study focuses on the New York Police Department (NYPD). The author finds out that a number of labor related aspects have resulted in fewer senior women police officers. For instance, the low turnover rate of officers in senior positions, lesser female applicants in comparison to men, and the NYPD’s male dominated organizational culture.
Miller, A., & Segal, C. (2014). Do female officers improve law enforcement quality? Effects on crime reporting and domestic violence escalation. UBS International Center of Economics in Society, 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2519470
The authors take into consideration the effect women have had on policing outcomes from the mid 1970’s to the early 1990’s. These were periods where crime within the US registered escalations relative to violent offences in communities and homes. Miller and Segal note that female police officers capacitated better quality of service. Using official data, it emerged that women in the public domain suffered more in areas with increased crime rates. The greater the number of women officers in a region resulted in decreases in domestic violence reporting especially crimes associated with intimate partner fatalities and repeat domestic abuse cases. Authors note that external policies advocated through affirmative action plans significantly reduced discrimination against women seeking to serve in police work.
Pollock, J. (2017). Crime and criminal justice in America. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
This book takes a comprehensive look into various sectors of the U.S. Criminal Justice system using contemporary research based data developed by the author. As a distinguished professor and criminologist also criticizes the fact that only a small percentage of women is represented in contemporary policing work settings. Barriers to gender equity stem from a variety of reasons such as departments demanding recruits bear short hair which is inherently discriminatory. Policing requires officers to work overtime which presents a challenge to pregnant officers and those catering for young children. These are some of the numerous reasons which have resulted in the representation of women in law enforcement careers plateauing at 11 to 12%.
Prenzler, T., Sinclair, G. (2013). The status of women police officers: An international review. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 41(2), 115-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlcj.2012.12.001.
The authors present a survey of different English speaking police departments across the world with a primary focus on women policing significances. It indicates that there are notable disparities in percentages of female officers worldwide. For instance, in patriarchal societies like in India the rate stood at 5.1% while in economically developed Tasmania, the rate was comparatively high at 28.8%. The results exhibited mixed findings due to the diversity of factors impacting on women recruitment into police service careers in different nations.
Stepler, R. (2017). Female police officers’ on-the-job experiences diverge from those of male officers. Pew Research Center. Retrieved on March 10, 2018 from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/17/female-police-officers-on-the-job-experiences-diverge-from-those-of-male-officers/
The author notes that the number of women in US policing increased from 8% in 1987 to 12% in 2013. 43% of female officers were noted to express sentiments that the male gender is privy to preferential treatment relative to assignments given and promotion opportunities. Conversely, 66.7% of men in the service determined that women are availed better workplace treatment. Steppler posits that the two genders manifest varying attitudes on police work with most male officers vouching for aggressive tactics where suspects defy instructions. 58% of male offices compared to only 48% of women pointed out that force rather than courtesy was necessary in ensuring justice. However, both genders expressed positive perceptions of the community members served resulting in near parity in desirable emotions concerning on the job outcomes.
Ward, A., & Prenzler, T. (2016). Good practice case studies in the advancement of women in policing. International journal of police science & management, 18(4), 242-250.
Ward and Prenzler (2016) begin by decrying the poor parity in the number of female officers even in well performing departments. This study integrates data collected from various countries which all underscore that policing remains a male dominated career. This is despite facts that in developed nations like the UK where the Gender Agenda encourages parity across public and private sector offices. Despite limitations, the authors note that the lack of gender equity in policing is based on failure by departments to keep data necessary for attaining desirable equity management outcomes.
Yu, H. H. (2015). An examination of women in federal law enforcement: An exploratory analysis of the challenges they face in the work environment. Feminist Criminology, 10(3), 259-278. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085114545824.
Based on quantitate research, this article expounds on the significant barriers women face in engaging in policing work. Using statistical data, it points out that the ratios of male to female officers continues decreasing from state level down to local police departs and state agencies. The authors imply that organizational culture within departments contributes greatly to emergence of other barriers limiting the effectiveness of women in contributing towards overall poling outcomes. For instance, the failures to accommodate pregnant officers in the workplace since departmental heads ignore policies allowing for development of pregnancy friendly environments.
The sources used in this annotated bibliography all point to the fact that there are barriers to entry deterring women from positively associating with police work which limits widespread recruitment in various departments. For women in policing, caring for young children and pregnancies limit their capacities to engage in overtime work. There are fewer female officers taking up senior positions in police departments due to poor motivation, lower numbers in comparison to men, as well as the low turnover registered in such offices. The overall organizational culture ensures that it remains a male dominated career regardless of policies made at state level aimed at limiting discriminatory practices and gender parity.
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