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Clinical medications which inhibit or imitate normal functionality of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are referred to as autonomic drugs. These are primarily utilized for the management of gastrointestinal, urinary tract, cardiovascular, and respiratory disorders (Cancado, Mendes, Arana, Horvath, Monzon, Salathe, & Wanner, 2015). The autonomic system is a vital component of the central nervous system and is responsible for the control of visceral or voluntary body functions. It influences the respiratory, urinary, digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems as well as playing a critical role in the body’s reactions to stress (Sohn, Harris, Berglund, Liu, Vong, Lowell & Elmquist, 2013). The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic are subordinate to the autonomous nervous system. The sympathetic system is concerned with flight or flight and the body’s effectiveness under stress. The parasympathetic nervous system purposes to control vegetative functionality like feeding, resting, breeding and repose and is notably in unceasing contradiction to the sympathetic system. It is therefore crucial to gain an appropriate understanding of how autonomous drugs like Albuterol, Belladonna and Ipratropium Bromide impact on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
This drug is categorized as bronchodilator and functions by opening up airways suffering bronchoconstriction (Chen, Chen, Fishbein, Lin, & Nattel, 2014). It is employed as a rapid action rescue medication due to its quick relief to patients with shortness of breath as well as wheezing. This medication acts as an antagonistic which relaxes the respiratory system irrespective of bronchoconstriction causes. It also impacts on the skeletal muscle vascular bed and uterus since direct action effects serves to relax smooth muscle walls (Elefteriou, Campbell, & Ma, 2014). Relative to the respiratory system, its selective impact on beta-2 receptors works to limit the release of chemical mediators from pulmonary mast cells thus enhancing cilia cells capability of clearing mucus (Chen et al., 2014).
Medication derived from the plant, Atropa belladonna is employed for the regulation of abnormal heart rates and the relaxation of muscle spasms (Kersten & Wyller, 2014). Derivatives from the poisonous plant like scopolamine and atropine both have similar effects on the functionality of the parasympathetic system as muscarinic antagonists. As competitive inhibitors on acetylcholine muscarinic activity, the plant’s extracts act on receptors within exocrine glands, intramural neurons as well as smooth and cardiac muscles. Scopolamine exhibits more effects on the eye, central nervous system, and secretory glands in comparison to its sister constituents hyoscyamine and atropine (Kersten & Wyller, 2014). Hyoscyamine acts with greater potency on the peripheral and nervous systems. Atropine largely acts on the muscular action of the bronchial, intestines and heart within a more extended duration. Effects of belladonna on the parasympathetic system are to decrease heart rate, baroreflex sensitivity and the respiratory rate in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system thus offering partial relief to patients.
This is a short acting anticholinergic bronchodilator prescribed for persons suffering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) allowing for bronchodilation. It is a medication that works to appraise the bronchomotor tone by curtailing acetylcholine action after binding to muscarinic receptors (Srivanitchapoom, Pandey, & Hallett, 2014). Ipratropium Bromide also purposes to reduce the parasympathetic variability of heart rates by impairing on the normal autonomic heart rate modulation. Ipratropium Bromide also results in the reduction of secretions enabling for further improvements to pulmonary functionality.
The effects of Albuterol, Belladonna and Ipratropium Bromide on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems enable patients to gain relief from gastrointestinal, urinary tract, cardiovascular, and respiratory disorders. Albuterol’s antagonist impact, belladonna’s as well as Ipratropium Bromide acetylcholine inhibition work to limit activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
Cancado, J. E., Mendes, E. S., Arana, J., Horvath, G., Monzon, M. E., Salathe, M., & Wanner, A. (2015). Effect of airway acidosis and alkalosis on airway vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to albuterol. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 16(1), 9.
Chen, P. S., Chen, L. S., Fishbein, M. C., Lin, S. F., & Nattel, S. (2014). Role of the autonomic nervous system in atrial fibrillation. Circulation research, 114(9), 1500-1515.
Elefteriou, F., Campbell, P., & Ma, Y. (2014). Control of bone remodeling by the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Calcified tissue international, 94(1), 140-151.
Kersten, H., & Wyller, T. B. (2014). Anticholinergic Drug Burden in Older People’s Brain–How well is it Measured?. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology, 114(2), 151-159.
Sohn, J. W., Harris, L. E., Berglund, E. D., Liu, T., Vong, L., Lowell, B. B., … & Elmquist, J. K. (2013). Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. Cell, 152(3), 612-619.
Srivanitchapoom, P., Pandey, S., & Hallett, M. (2014). Drooling in Parkinson’s disease: a review. Parkinsonism & related disorders, 20(11), 1109-1118.