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Applying Current Literature to Clinical Practice
The type of group that was discussed
The type of group that was discussed in this study was HIV patients who were depressed due to their health condition that they were suffering. Different types of groups were also compared with the primary group under study. He different types of group psychotherapy that were studied were not limited to supportive psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, coping effective training as well as a combination of emotional expressive and cognitive behavioral therapy. The group was selected due to the fact that depression had been one of the major aspect that had been contributing to the deterioration of their health, which could contribute to premature death. In addition, the researchers had been aware that depressed mood tends to have a high prevalence among HIV infected individuals, and limited studies had been conducted to establish how these patients can manage to cope with depressive moods after being diagnosed with HIV and AIDS.
How often the group met
The group met in approximately 7 to 15 times, and this is equivalent to the number of treatment sessions that the group members received. The duration of each intervention ranged between 90 to 150 minutes. It is through these sessions that the interventions were being made, and some treatment sessions focused either treating grief plus depression symptoms while others focused on treating depressive symptoms alone.
The participants of this study, and why they were selected
The participants in this study were the HIV-patients who were presenting depressive symptoms the study aimed at establishing the efficacy of group psychotherapy treatment among this group of patients. However, though the participants who were included in the study were HIV patients who were having depressive symptoms, the inclusion criteria was not specified in terms of the participants.
Settings of the participants
The participants of the study has symptoms of depression at the time when this study was being conducted, and this was as a result of being diagnosed with HIV. However, in other studies, the participants had depression at the time of entry, while others entailed men who had no signs of depression but were suffering from the disease. In addition, majority of the participants belonged to the lower social economic status, and this, coupled with their health status, contributed to the development of depression.
Curative factors that might be important for this group
The curative factors that were important for this group were the use of group supportive psychotherapy as well as group cognitive behavioral therapy. The cognitive behavioral therapies focused on empowering the participants to abstain from negative behavioral patterns and intend embrace positive thinking patterns. In addition, the cognitive behavioral therapies inspired the participants to accept themselves by enhancing their self-esteem in order to live normal lives. These sentiments were also echoed by Wheeler (2014), who stipulated that there are five motivational factors that are organized in a hierarchical pattern, and individuals strive to achieve them based on their priority. At the bottom of the pyramid are the psychological needs, followed by safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization at the top. The cognitive behavioral therapies aimed at meeting or satisfying the psychological needs of the depressed HIV patients. At the same time, the group supportive therapies focus on meeting love and belong needs of the participants by fostering love and equality among them.
Himelhoch, S., Medoff, D., & Oyeniyi, G. (2007). Efficacy of group psychotherapy to reduce depressive symptoms among HIV-infected individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS patient care & stds, 21(10), 732-739.
Wheeler, K. (ED.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice. New York, NY: Springer.