Acute Cystitis and Pyelonephritis Essay -624 words - Essay Prowess

Acute Cystitis and Pyelonephritis Essay -624 words


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Acute Cystitis and Pyelonephritis


Acute cystitis and pyelonephritis are among the serious infections that affect most human beings. Acute cystitis refers to the inflammation of the bladder that is caused by bacterial infection. Normally, harmful bacteria leave the body during urination. Nevertheless, in some cases, these bacterial organisms fail to be excreted during urination and travel back into the urethra, causing acute infective cystitis. On the other hand, acute pyelonephritis refers to a severe and sudden inflammation of the kidneys, and this can result in permanent kidney damage and even death. This paper pays high attention to the analysis of the symptoms that are associated with these two conditions, and the individuals who are at risk of developing either of them.

Symptoms of acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis

Individuals suffering from acute cystitis often experience a strong and persistent urge of urinating, passing frequents and small amounts of urine, hematuria (blood in the urine), a burning sensation during urination, a low grade fever, feeling discomfort especially around the pelvic area, passing out a strong-smelling or cloudy urine, and a pressure sensation in the lower abdomen. Moreover, back or side pain, nausea and vomiting, chills and fever and new episodes of accidental daytime wetting in young children are common signs of urinary tract infection (Riley, 2015).

On the other hand, pyelonephritis is characterized by groin, back, abdominal or side pains, cloudy urine, burning or pain during urination, blood or pus in urine, frequent urination, fishy-smelling urine, fever (reaching up to 102 degrees), chills, vomiting, nausea, general aching, mental confusion among others. However, these symptoms mostly occur within one or two days after the bacterial infection commences (DiMaria & Solan, 2012).

Symptoms that are similar and those that are different

In both conditions, back pains, blood in the urine, frequent urination, smelling urine, fever, chills, cloudy urine, vomiting and burning sensation during urination are experienced (Riley, 2015). However, in pyelonephritis, mental confusion, moist skin, and severe high-grade fever are experienced. Consecutively, individuals suffering from cystitis experience pressure in the lower abdomen and discomfort around the pelvic area, as opposed to individuals suffering from pyelonephritis (DiMaria & Solan, 2012).

How to differentiate between acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis

In most cases, the two conditions are differentiated by the area of infection and the symptoms that the patient is experiencing. Acute cystitis usually affects the bladder (though failure to immediate treatment the infection can proceed to the kidneys), while pyelonephritis affects the kidneys only. Moreover, the difference in the signs and symptoms, such as high-grade fever (reaching beyond 100 degrees) and high abdominal pains are used to differentiate the two conditions (DiMaria & Solan, 2012).

Populations that are at a high risk of developing either acute cystitis or acute pyelonephritis

Women are mostly at high risk of developing both acute cystitis and pyelonephritis, due to their biological make-ups, and conditions such as pregnancy. Other factors that increase the risk of cystitis development include birth control barriers (such as the use of condom or diaphragm that is coated with spermicide), history of acute cystitis, sexual activity, use of catheters, diabetes, abnormalities in the urinary system (such as kidney transplant and kidney stones), enlarged prostate among others (Riley, 2015). Similarly, individuals who use catheters, have spinal cord or nerve damage, undergoing cystoscopic examination, and have suppressed immune systems are at high risk of developing pyelonephritis. In most cases, women and the elderly are mostly affected by this condition (DiMaria & Solan, 2012).


It is, therefore, evident that both acute cystitis and pyelonephritis are serious conditionals that affect the urinary system. Individuals should seek medical interventions early in advance in order to prevent these conditions from causing severe damages.


DiMaria, C., and Solan, M., (2012). Pyelonephritis: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Complictions. Retrieved from,

Riley, J., (2015). Acute Cystitis (Bladder Infection). Retrieved from,