An organization generally is a group of people working together with the ultimate aim of accomplishing common goals through division of labour. The organization makes use of personal strengths in order to achieve more than what can be achieved by a single individual. On the other hand, organizational theory focuses on the outcome of social organizations that is influenced by the individuals` attitudes and behaviours within these organizations (Daft, 2010). This paper pays high attention to the effects of organizational theories in educational leadership.
Classical organizational theory emerged during the twentieth century and incorporates three major theories that include scientific management, bureaucratic and administrative theories. Scientific management focuses on the concept of planning of work in order to achieve specialization, efficiency, simplification and standardization. Scientific management theory recommends four basic principles to be applied in social organizations in order to achieve maximum productivity. These principles include the scientific training of workers, scientific selection of workers, labour and management cooperation instead of conflicts and the principle of science, not rule-of-thumb (Miner, 2001).
Bureaucratic theory emphasizes the need of the organization to have a culture of considering it as part of the broader society. This approach is based on a number of principles that include democracy, stability and predictability, rationality, specialization and organizational structure. Bureaucratic approach in many organizations is considered empire building, impersonal, rigid and self-perpetuating (Dzimbiri, 2009). Administrative approach incorporates both bureaucratic and scientific management approaches and is based on various principles that enhance commanding, training, organizing and coordinating management roles.
In the education scenario, classical theories of management are highly applied by the paraprofessionals, school educators and leaders. For example, most of teachers who are in this perspective the organizational workers are employed based on their training and educational levels. Most of them are graduates from recognized universities and thus have the necessary skills to teach and achieve the schools educational goals and objectives. In addition, the teachers have high cooperation with the school administration and this promotes cooperation between the two and in the long run minimizes the conditions that would lead to conflicts (Owens, Robert & Valesky, 2007).
Moreover, the scientific management theory, bureaucratic and administrative theories have enhanced the leadership in educational situations in the modern society. Most school administrators have provided the mechanisms of solving conflicts between teachers, students and parents in general and this has enabled the smooth running of the schools. In addition, the school management has provided means of motivating both teachers and students in order to elevate the potential of realizing the schools` goals and objectives (Sapru, 2008). For example, most schools are currently rewarding teachers who reap maximum benefits to the school and also rewarding students who perform better in their academics that in the long run help to create a culture of hardworking in those schools.
However, in some schools, the administration have not put into practice these classical theories and this have resulted to adverse consequences. For example, most schools are performing poorly and conflicts and school unrest have become the order of the day.
It is, therefore, evident that incorporating classical theories can have positive effects to the educational leadership. The classical theory provides mechanisms of solving conflicts, creating the culture of considering school as part of the broader society and improving performance that is part of the schools` goals and objectives.
Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Dzimbiri, L. B. (2009). Organisation and management theories: an African focus: Integrating structure, people, processes and the environment for human happiness. Göttingen: Cuvillier.
Miner, J. B. (2001). Organizational behavior: Foundations, theories, and analyses. New York: Oxford University Press.
Owens, Robert, & Valesky, Thomas. (2007). Organizational behavior in education. Allyn & Bacon.
Sapru, R. K. (2008). Administrative theories and management thought. New Dehli: PHI Learning.