The Relationship Between Motivation And Job Satisfaction Among Women Police: Case Study Of Uae Ministry Of Interior (Moi) Dissertation Report - Essay Prowess

The Relationship Between Motivation And Job Satisfaction Among Women Police: Case Study Of Uae Ministry Of Interior (Moi) Dissertation Report

The Relationship Between Motivation And Job Satisfaction Among Women Police: Case Study Of Uae Ministry Of Interior (Moi) Dissertation Report



This research aims at examining the relationship liking satisfaction at work and motivation among women police officer at the Ministry of Interior. Indeed, police wok task is considered to be diverse and calls for one to have the ability to take command, show direction and analyse critical decision whenever the need arises for certain critical conditions. The most study has been conducted regarding different types of job satisfaction and factors that determine job motivation within an organizational mode. However, these researchers do not capture the position of women police. This research follows the framework provided by Herzberg two-factor motivational theory.   

This work is commonly performed at different perspective or sometimes by a staff member working alone.  Police operation work Operational is not often performed under the close monitoring eyes of their respective supervisors, and a significant amount of reliance is placed on the high level of motivation and job satisfaction and the professionalism of every individual officer.

 Most research has shown that the relationship between job motivation as well as job satisfaction that are high in working places tend to produce  high expectations and outcomes (Singh, 2012). It is, therefore, crucial that female police officers in the United Arab Emirates be highly motivated as well as enrich job satisfaction among themselves to enhance and increase quality of service in United Arab Emirate police department.

The research utilizes questionnaires and structured interview questions instrument based on the sub factors as brought out by Herzberg (2011), hence the instruments are the expanded version of previous instrument used in doctoral to investigate different views on the above study.

Data were analysed using descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and AVOVA test to distinguish key sources and difference between motivation and job satisfaction among women. Other variables such as factors that determine job motivation and job satisfaction in relations to age, rank, educational level, experience and other factors were analysed. The findings of this research provided significant information and a number of recommendation made concerning Abu Dhabi Police force relation to police motivational levels, training, and work allocation between men and women.



1.1         Current Situation

Hitherto, scientific inventions, achievements, and discoveries have been made yet unresolved social problems stand out with particular absoluteness. What are the privileges and positions of female police leaders? Indeed, the idea of gender equality has been having been addressed in most organizations, governmental institutions, and in the society as a whole. In this case, the current situation of the notion of the quality of women police officers, their societal status, and rights should be carried out to certify the outcome of job fulfilment and job performance amid the United Arab Emirates males and females. With the first growing economies in the Gulf region, it anticipated that almost 50 percent of women participation is highest than the neighboring countries (Shallal, 2011). Similarly, many types of research, job satisfaction are among the crucial components of organization’s persistent efficacy and efficiency irrespective of whether it is the public or private premise. In recent scenarios, the similar structure tends to have parallel origination for their operations like material and financial resources among other factors. Nevertheless, these processes produce numerous standards of success and achievements regarding the effectiveness and efficacy in such a comparable manner. The benchmark that distinguishes two similar organizations regarding procedure outcome embedded in the management practices of the organizations, wherein it reflects the administration’s command and implementation of their responsibilities much specific to human resource management, setting examples to its workforce. Such practice of the management alone will yield employee satisfaction. One among the major responsibilities of the management has been the supervision of employment satisfaction not from the favorable management perspective, rather in the identification of scenarios or circumstances for the improvement of processes in human resource management.

In Singh (2012), he examines how some of the roles various factors play in job satisfaction in UAE. The factors range from age, race, gender, work experience, and work experience. In UAE, women police are socially discriminated, and job motivation is ignored at their leadership level. Consequently, amongst the rapidly changing and dynamic globalized economy and workplace of today, the developments of organizational performance have an association with the development of personal skills, knowledge, experience, and enactment. The association amid job fulfilment and job inspiration within women police offers in a leadership position should, therefore, is significant to be considered by the Ministry of Interior in the Arab World.

1.2         The Problem

Employment satisfaction and job motivation goes hand in hand when it comes organization success or achievements. In relations to this matter, a satisfied employee will tend to work efficiently and therefore perform better in achieving the organizational goals and objectives. According to Gorenak and Pagon (2006), positive correlation exists between factors affecting worker’s satisfaction and the level of the organization’s performance. There are also individual studies that indicate the correlation between higher employee reimbursements to the firm commitment to the team. Materializations of employee dissatisfaction results in capitulations, suggestions or feedbacks for improvement either within the pyramid, work environment, or work processes, being inert to circumstances until they improve with right decisions from the management and finally being indifferent at work or its associated environment. Lack of job motivation is also another factor that leads to absenteeism, poor performance at work as stated by Lambert et al. (2005), decreased motivation, attrition, and less commitment to the organization. Due to lack of job satisfaction and motivation among employs will impose consequences to the company such as financial strain on the organization, which include the loss of period and stamps down to grow completely and its ability to capitalize it chances of success (Camp & Lambert, 2006). Between organizational

Job satisfaction can be identified by the willingness of employees to assume more responsibilities or take up leadership positions (Abdurrahman, 2004; Mowafaq, 2004). Leadership is described to have various dimension, which can affect its definition; however, situational and contextual factors are among the most typical considered aspects in the reflection of leadership. According to Jung et al., (2009), he notes that there exists some considerable degree of the top-down influence between organizational leaders and their followers within the leadership process. In the context of this study, leadership is considered as a primary element of performance, and within the UAE in specific, leadership can only be improved through job motivation (Yaseen, 2010). Similarly, to improve leadership within the police sector, some reform should be considered within the police station. As pointed out by (Lee and Moon, 2011), the importance supervision to the success of police organization and manifestations of their goals can only be achieved through various factors that comprehend job fulfilment and job inspiration. Therefore, the increase in task performance through work satisfaction and job motivation will only occur if these two factors (motivation and job satisfaction) should be analyzed and implemented within the organization.

The problem is that: To determine the rights or position or statuses regarding leadership women police officer in the United Arab Emirates Ministry of Interior (MOI). Therefore, this research will examine the main components that result in the job satisfaction of the operating female police officers that ranges from motivational levels in the leadership position in the Ministry of Interior.

1.3         Background of the Study

This research looks at the connection between satisfaction and motivation at work, among women police leadership in the UAE Ministry of Interior. Widely speaking, is the MOI leadership style can be said to meet that of the 21st Century? Looking at the current trend in of volatile situation in the Arab World, it worth to proactive and introduce a meaningful leadership change in Arab world earlier than later. When UAE was established, there was an expression of the will of the people for the achievement of the unity, progress and prosperity, and as well as performance in the dignity and strength of men and women. The unification of the security services in UAE was to consider a literal expression of the togetherness of both territory and its people. This was because, the safety was painstaking to the central body of national responsibility, the priority of federal authority was to create the MOI, to enhance full integration of security services and police reforms as the target. Stable improvement of the standards and capabilities of the Ministry, the police, and safety activities were indispensable so that safety and stability can be adequately provided in all parts of the UAE. MOI was to be responsible for these improvements and establishment of the rules and regulations that assisted in the sufficient fulfillment of the duties and obligations of the Ministry in all sectors of security. Looking at the recent trending, UAE has witnessed a large-scale improvement and development that have ensured an increase in the responsibilities and duties of police officers. That has made the new police reform to conform new ideas, abilities, and approaches applied for the establishment of the modern system of policing that is efficient, and in the position of reducing crime and maintaining order, and provide stability and security all individuals in UAE.

Notwithstanding many attempts that are made by MOI to formulate the skills and knowledge of the employees in the UAE. It is also clear that majority of Ministry leaders with hierarchical functions aware of program opportunity that might motivate the MOI vision and achieving the strategies and developing the organization culture of the Ministry. With the massive acknowledgment of the effect that leadership styles have upon the job satisfaction of employees, the management of the Ministry can formulate a standard action plan and the mission statement leading to improvement in the leadership management skills and the quality of decision-making. Effective leadership can also be developed when the performance indicators are considered in a bigger capacity.

Previous studies have found that both women and men face challenges during the adoption of leadership styles while there is limited understanding of these difficulties and factor that may have influenced these different leadership styles. Due to increased number of women employ if the United Arab Emirates, where they have acquired control position demonstrating “cooperative” deeds and “democratic” styles, women have to put effort equated to men to demonstrate themselves, achieving triumph and acknowledgement in public facilities (Yaseen, 2010). Various scholars have identified that gender inequality is the critical condition that is rampant in the United Arab Emirates, where both genders are said to be suited for alternative functions, and only individual careers and profession are considered suitable for suitable for various roles which are only constrained to women. In a nutshell, women tend to have leadership skill that differs from other individual that can make the organization achieve its goals.

Many leadership approaches have been in place that can ensure any organization to achieve their goals. Laissez-faire stands for to let it be and is used to articulate a leader with a handoff style permitting his or her colleagues to complete their task. It is an effective means type only when the supervisor monitors how the work is being achieved and communicate back at regular interval. Frequently, it works for only members where the individual is highly skilled and experienced in self-starters. Similarly, it is also referred to a situation where managers do not exert full control (Hoyt, 2010).

Transactional leadership style is an example of style whereby employee agree to follow their leader with the task in line to “transaction.” Similarly, the leaders will control and manage the income or reward of the team members and using incentives motivates highlight them that the higher capacity achieved the greater the productivity and reward.  Alternatively, a leader that employ transactional could practice management by exception in that, instead of paying better achievement, he or she take educative action when the expectations are not reached. Transaction leadership is a manner of ruling other than a true leadership style, as it is directed or employed to short term-tasks. These approaches are constraint to success that is expected of an organization. In transactions leadership, leaders are to maintain the company goals and mission. They do not lead from the front line, but divide the task among the team members (Hoyt, 2010). Both transactional and transformation are least expected within an organization in the sense that transformational identifies the initiatives that add value while transactional maintain routine to complete their daily tasks.

On the other hand, ladies are said to be the main-frame of their families, and by elongation, of society. However, in the recent cases, most women have shifted, and many of them aspire toward playing the significant role in the development of their respective nations and their communities. United Arab Emirates women are perhaps among the individuals that have received the greater dynamics and encouragement to attain highest academic degrees, less limitation to their careers, and have abandoned their traditional norms (Rashid Al Maktoum: 2012). Increase educational achievement is the only thing that can explain the lead in progressive change within an organization because the United Arab Emirates general public is in the state of movement and the nation has to go through vital societal, financial, and cultural aspects in nearly all the aspects throughput their lives for decades (Abdalla: 2012).

Most of the recent studies identify that men and women implement diverse leadership styles provisional on the theory of leadership they choose. According to Abdalla (2012), leadership is said to be the capacity to inspire confidence and support among people who are determined in achieving organizational objectives or goals. Despite the effect imposed by leadership styles and positions within any organization, most women of the UAE face many constraints when it comes to rating employment opportunities. It happens severally because of the discrimination in workplaces and many women police officers are treated as understaffed. Similarly, another factor that would have contributed to women position at the workplace is male domination, stereotypes of the female officer, and health issues such as pregnancy and motherhood (Hipp, & Rizo: 2010).

Other Researches have indicated that women portray styles that are different from men. Although they frequently seem to have physiognomies related to the female gender that differs from features allied with that of men. Hence, how people identify themselves depend on the characteristics; that is attributed to male and female’s behavior. Theories of leadership have pointed out dissimilar styles of governance behavior that relies on leaders’ predilection toward job and individuals. Task-pointed headship is linked with the manager stressing the function more, and their core apprehension is realizing the group’s duty while bearing in mind group affiliates as a means to the end. Therefore, it is considered by behavior connected further with the “argentic attributes” of the male gender. Separately, people-oriented headship behavior is related to the leader stressing personal relations between individuals and taking individual liking in the desires of group participants. Thus, individual-oriented leaders are considered by behavior concentrating on associations and thought for persons and are supplementary with the “communal attributes” of womanly gender. Masculine individuals are expected to reveal task-oriented leadership behavior while individuals who deliberate themselves as having features that are more girlish are obviously portray individual style in leadership.

Despite their leadership position, in the UAE women are exposed to more snags in the workroom more than male complements, which is based on gender through promotion and hiring within the organizations (Rhode and Kellerman, 2007). On the other hand, ascertain that men have superior abilities than women also lead to career decrement among women in leadership position in UAE. It also vital to mention that women in leadership position are given low wages as compared to men. Women in this region have defined success based on the personal and professional attributes, mangers in UAE define success based on the objectives measures, rewards, promotions, other studies have also shown that women are faced with family conflicts when it come to their office functions and family roles (Mainiero and Sullivan, 2005) and at appoint they are subjected to choose between their family and career roles. Provided the external, social, cultural and ever-changing contextual factors that affects women and their duty in career, this study would look at current leadership behavior exhibited by women police officers and various factors that influencing and hindering their careers.

Negative and positive aspect of job satisfaction and motivation post different success within any organization. These factors are identified by different factors and determinants of employee satisfaction at work, as it is an integral component of the scheme to improve employment efficacy. Any organization’s efforts towards better quality output will include the identification of important, influential determinants in generating various levels of job satisfaction among employees. Such identified determinants are suggested to be best utilized for the employees’ welfare as well as for thriving management. Various studies have narrowed the satisfaction determinants down to two main groups.

A job satisfaction is sometimes said to have originated from a law enforcement perspective in public sector organization, it becomes much meditative, as it will involve direct involvement of the law enforcement personnel with its customers or public in general. The responsibilities of such law enforcement officials can be grouped under three functionalities, which are, to maintain the peace-ensuring safety of the public, enforce legislation to keep the control, and serve public or extend assistance involving their responsibilities of protecting property and life, and prevent crime incidence, secure order, and peaceful environment. Judicial setup requires unparalleled circumstances demanding police staff to be transparent and productive. In such circumstances, the interrelationship between workforce and its organization is very crucial and essential. Depending on the previous studies on HRM, this study investigates the leadership behavior exhibited on job satisfaction determinants one of the greatest law enforcement organization in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the Abu Dhabi Police Force. In particular, it will look at leadership behavior exhibited by women police and their relationship in job contentment and the study identifies the elements that affect and hindrance were affecting their leadership behavior of Women Police officers.

Finally, achieving organizations objectives and aims are achieved by job motivation. In this case, high performance and outcomes only originates from high moriavtion (Ahmad et al., 2010). There are certain qualities of motivation, which cannot be changed within an organization setting to the employees. The objectives and possibilities are identified to alter an individual’s aim and objectives. In private and public sectors, organizations are inclined to recruit motivated and committed employees to attain their goals and expected outcome without the involvement of external determinants (Snipes et al., 2005). Any successful organization requires employees who are motivated to be enthusiastic, devoted, and resourceful towards achieving the aims and objectives of their organization (Spector, 2003). This study is executed by the researcher who is an employee in Ministry of Interior and the President of the Women Police Association in the United Arab Emirates. The researcher’s observation of diffident women police officers and the resultant high turnover rate caused by the discrepancies in the assignment of roles and responsibilities to their male counterparts has been the basis for investigating on employee motivation and job satisfaction. The researcher will employ action research in this study to enumerate and investigate the concerns associated with the motivation of women police officers in MOI and present policy recommendations for enhancement of motivation in MOI. This study aims to supplement existing research on job satisfaction and discover motivational determinants in the Middle East. The researcher in this research also strives to link the knowledge gap recognized in peculiar to the job satisfaction and its influential factors among women Abu Dhabi Police officers and especially attempted to link leadership behavior with job satisfaction.

The study will, therefore, aimed at investigating the motivational factors and job satisfaction, which is among the significant determinants of the largest law enforcement organization in the United Arab Emirates, the MOI. Moreover, it will also identify the factors that affect and hinder leadership behavior of Women Police Officers.

1.4         Statement of the Problem

Prior to the twentieth century findings, initiations and accomplishments, humanity’s one-sided social glitches stand out with specific unambiguity, one of the problems is the right within the police organizations. Via the concept, quality of the lady police officials meant social equivalence, justice of the social status, rights, and not the physical and mental equality of the individuals. Some researchers have been conducted on women police officer’s role in the leadership position at the United Arab Emirates. For example, Fredman and Goldblatt (2015), determines the principle of equality as a central commitment to international human rights. In addition, several studies have been conducted previously about Job satisfaction and motivation in developed countries context but only little from non-western background especially Middle East countries. This section would review only key studies that examined job satisfaction and related factors in UAE context particularly among Women and studies that focused on Policewomen. Tlaiss (2012) determined job fulfilment in the Middle East, reflecting on the experience of female managers from UAE using survey method in the banking sector. Overall, the findings revealed that the respondents are met with the biased aspects of their careers, but not the objective ones. Work-related factors seemed to explain better the job fulfilment of women bosses in the banking industry in Lebanon when compared to individual personal factors.

The study focuses on identifying ways of empowering women in UAE, and tries to captures their behaviors, careers, expertise and problems that women leaders face within organization. The research also looks at the opinions that women in police leadership have in the Ministry of Interior in UAE and basically who have achieved extraordinary career success. In-depth, talks were piloted using an interview guide deliberately designed to implore responses about their early socialization designs; individual personality; and their dream of the encounters facing employed and professional women in UAE. On the contrary to social insights and typecasts, UAE women leadership categories are ambitious and self-motivated. Their fruitful change to elevated areas can be accredited to their initial association aspects which appreciated education, helpful parents (particularly the father), and equivalent treatment among their children. They are affected by the in-parallel of their roles as female leaders about the predominant social values and prospects concerning women and their old-style role in society.

As indicated earlier, the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation on a working staff turnout and conduct in a utility corporation in the Arab World is among the critical challenges that face these particular women in the leadership position, particularly in the UAE women police sectors. In this case, Randhawa and Narag (2013) have examined employment status and challenges faced by Women in police and various factors such as job security, responsibility; respect and recognition, promotion opportunities and pay are the most common factors of job satisfaction. However, most women in the police are not satisfied with their advancement opportunities and working conditions (Sahgal, 2007; Grogan, 2008). Thus, it is understandable that women police personnel who are less satisfied with their jobs will be less motivated to perform the necessary tasks, have lower productivity, more absences, and higher turnover intentions.

While, many researches have captured the topic of job gratification and Job motivation, there has been no study that captures the measure of satisfaction and applies the scale in varied cultures. Some scholars have argued that causes leading to job fulfilment have tended to be self-contradictory and varied significantly. For instance, a single study found that income plays a dangerous role in shaping job satisfaction, while in another study, suggest that salary does play vital role (Spector, 2008). This varied opinion is related to individual human beings, social setting, cultures, and demographic trends and diverse scales of gauging job satisfaction are employed (Spector, 2008). Other scenarios comprise of the type of organization and the quality of tasks that each employ performs within the organization. According to recent scholars, the quality of the work is deliberated as the main element of an employee’s gratification with a job. Nevertheless, the elements of employee job gratification vary slightly amongst diverse bodies with alike cultures, inferring that the results can be generalized to other organizations with same cultural traits.

According to Spector (2008), job gratification across cultures are dissimilar, because people of different cultural traits and have varied perceptions toward job gratification factors identified by early studies might not apply to other organizations where cultural backgrounds and experiences are different. The variation in job satisfaction and motivating when it comes to factors affecting them is related to alterations in cultural values, behaviors, societal norms, political, and human variations. Generally, urbanized states are culturally, financially, and administratively dissimilar from developing countries not mentioning the UAE, in which this study is carried out. Islamic culture in the UAE society might for some reasons affects job tendencies. In general, studies into job gratification and motivation have working various methods for measuring job gratification as described below.

Firstly, several studies have relied on traditional mean or scale for determining job gratification such as Job Descriptive Index (JDI). The significant main advantage of employing is that it is only limited to those facets of developer as they chose to put their device. Even though these scales are useable and dependable, they do not include other important determinants pertaining job gratification.

Next, some scholars have the trend of adding other items on the traditional scale to accomplish the modern scale. Although it works to some points, the scale provides numerous confusion if similarities of the items exist and cannot be relied upon to give the best results.

Thirdly, to ensure reliability and validity of the scale, some research have developed and build from the zero from the objective of the research, in that, job gratifications scale can be used in research. These authors felt the desire to construct job gratifications scale to look at the numerous factors and features in police work in the Arab societies. In spite of the numerous research pertaining job gratifications, e.g. among correctional staff (Garland et al., 2009; Griffin et al., 2010), there has not single study that have focused on job contentment amid women police officers. The association that exists between work surroundings and worker gratification has been covered expansively in western countries (Nalla et al. 2011). In the opinion of Nalla et al. (2011), these studies have covered even beyond looking at the issues that affect employee satisfaction, but have also identified the demographic factors and job motivation.

Apart from that, several studies have been conducted pertaining male insolences in the direction of working females in the Arab World. The findings have indicated that UAE male report very old-style attitude towards working women in the same fields. Moreover, individual, unemployed, and learned Arab men display limited old-style attitudes in line of their work as compared to women that are married and less experienced. In the findings, age was found to the main forecaster of the males’ attitudes towards working females. Although most of the studies have concentrated on the general job satisfaction among women employees in different sectors, their research mainly aims on the associations between job gratification and motivation in UAE women police officers in the Ministry of Interior. In this case, this study will identify and examine the dimensionality of employee job satisfaction and job motivation among women police officers. Leadership is vital for the new strategic development of MOI, and for change to be enacted, the MOI should provide guidelines for the development of organizational capabilities in MOI and other related departments through the introduction of new policies and alterations in leadership. Because UAE is among the fast growing and developing region in the Middle East, the government has focused on ensuring that national development leads to the state having competitiveness in both regional and global economy (MOI, 2013). This study has the purpose of exploring the connection between job satisfaction and motivation in UAE women police officers. For the Ministry of Interior to have the organizational objective of improving its leadership, the ministry needs to have a clear and sufficient appreciation of the current situations that will act as a basis for development planning, and subsequent action.

Other studies have investigated the possible intervening role of organizational commitment in the relationship of leadership demeanor with the work results of job satisfaction and job performance among United Arab Emirates men and women. However, there is not study that has the focus on the status of leadership position of women police officer. Hence, this research will try to determine the real status or position and privileges concerning the direction of women police personnel in the UAE Ministry of Interior (MOI).

1.5         Aims and Objective of The Research

Looking at the current situation in UAE, the platform of this research will address important issues like control techniques and their impact on the job contentment of the workers within the Ministry of Interior Mainly Women police officers. The identification of the main problem concerning the link between motivation and job contentment is the primary concern for any organization and particularly in this case, the Ministry of Interior. Previous studies on job motivation, and job satisfaction dealing with different leadership styles and the effect they have on the productivity of an organization have not addressed women in particular. The existing research aims to locate the percentage of the existing link between motivation and job satisfaction among women in leadership position at the public sector of Police. In addition, how do these factors contribute to the proper achievements of the MOI objectives? The study also extends to find an extent to which job satisfaction within the public sector is influenced be leadership concerning several department of the Ministry of Interior in UAE.

The main reason the researcher has selected this field of study from the police department of Ministry of Interior is that the researcher is currently employed as the head of Women police officer in UAE in one of the departments. As such, the researcher has an extensive knowledge of the styles of leadership within all of the agencies within the police department, and with a support of the Ministry of Interior, we will be able to acquire the primary data. Consequently, with the Department of MOI being the chosen case study, it will help the researcher in the efficient administration of the data collections techniques that will run through interviews and questionnaires. The study also aims to fill the complete the gaps in the theoretical context of leadership styles within the public institutions in the UAE and to assist in developing leadership skills among the women workforce in MOI.

The fundamental objective of the research is to look at leadership behavior exhibited by women police and their relationship with job satisfaction. In addition, the study identifies the factors that influence and hindrance were affecting their leadership behavior of Women Police officers, in the Ministry of Interior. The research implies to make significant contributions to the Arab society in general. First, limitation of the research dwells on the pre-existing research on job gratification in the western countries. The research therefore extends its grasp of the investigation to the MOI in UAE concentrating on factors of job fulfilment and motivational factors in the UAE women and specifically women police officers. Similarly, the rese leadership positions in the UAE.

Second, the research attempt to find the factors that affects job gratification in the largest ministry of UAE, women police officer, that have different perception towards western culture; the research therefore formulated standard questionnaires and interview question that will be carried out women police officers in the Ministry of Interior at UAE. Thirdly, the study attempts to investigate if there is presence on selection and training programs among police officers in United Arab Emirates Female Police. Finally, the research attempts to look into the discernments of the bases of motivation differ among sub-groups of police in references to their Age; Year of police expertise; Level or rank; Gender, and Highest professional achievement.

The objective of this research is to inspect the women police personnel in the leadership position as well as how they are linked to motivation and job contentment in the Ministry of Interior (MOI).

1.6         Sources of Data

The availability of the earmark data or information is most vital aspect part of any research. Following this study, the research will utilize data from sources like:

  • Researchers and data sets from UAE MOI Abu Dubai Police Department, the UAE MOI, and Scholarly reviewed articles.
  • Secondary data from researchers carried out by various scholars in the Middle East.
  • Dataset from questionnaires, which will be held in UAE MOI Abu Dubai Police.

1.7         Research Questions, Objectives and Hypothesis

1.7.1        Research Questions

To realize the aim of the research project; below queries were asked.

1.7.2        Research objectives

  1. To determine the causes of job satisfaction among police women in UAE
  2. To assess how motivation influence job satisfaction among police women in UAE
  3. To determine if both satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work caused by similar factors.

1.7.3        Hypotheses       Hypothesis 1

H1: Job Satisfaction among female police can be linked to appreciation.

H10: There is no significant relationship between appreciation and job satisfaction.       Hypothesis 2

H2: Job satisfaction and motivation complement one another

H20: Job satisfaction and motivation do not complement or affect one another in any way.       Hypothesis 3

H3: Team work and existing policies have an effect on job satisfaction among policewomen

H30: There is no relation between job satisfaction and either team work or policies in place

1.8         Significance of the Research

This study seeks to determine which wok practices and types of motivational factors have a positive impact of upon the attitudes of the employees to help improve customer satisfaction and engagement of stakeholders, and enhance levels of employee satisfaction in organizational performance in MOI. This study is founded on cross-sectional qualitative method since it assists to collect enormous sample size within a less period to examine the satisfaction of women police at work. Therefore, future research should dwell on broad research approach. Similarly, the rationale stems from the personal experience of the researcher will as an MOI employee and in possessing reviewed and analyzed existing literature on the subject.

This study is also important in the sense that, administration indulgent of worker foundations of motivation is important for matching a productive work demographic. Similarly, understanding of the management employee satisfaction is necessary to upsurge preservation rates and employment submissions of heightening job satisfaction, and efficiently to accomplish a varied staff police force managers may demand to comprehend the impacts of the group and sex variations on sources of workplace motivation. On the other hand, this research is distinctive in that many researches have been conducted to pinpoint unambiguous sources of the police inspiration and extensive search of the literature has not examined the relationship of job satisfaction with motivation for Women police in the Ministry of Interior in UAE. Women police motivation is an exceedingly significant issue that is closed related to meeting organizational consequences. Workers who concentrate on their work perform well and achieve organizational expectations.

The research aims at providing the baseline understanding of what is occurring in the MOI and assist in showing where and how improvements can be made while offering further knowledge for the development of leadership within the other public sector organization in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition to the notion of the public security, the knowledge and findings accumulated from this research can be replicated within other nation states that are developing and which may be facing these similar obstacles when it comes to women police leadership.

Up to modern times, managers are currently trained from traditional leadership styles to new styles in order to meet the organizational goals and objectives. Manages should motivate employees to maximize performance. To keep this in check, leaders and manager must acquire leadership skills that allows them to keep the organizational running and achieve its goals. In the public institution, Motivation is seen as an intrinsically challenging and complex phenomenon. Due to a current evolving environment, the task of motivating workers, especially women police officers is a more challenging and more essential in these institutions. Therefore, women police officer face challenges to justify the inexpensive spending with enumerated proof and the standard of service conveyed to the community. To achieve this, they must acknowledge certain factors that motivates their counterparts and to understand the how to increase the productivity.

The study will also, contribute significantly towards initiatives to draw public policies, research scholars, and practitioners. Furthermore, this study provides on various fronts. Firstly, validation of both motivational and job satisfaction scales in an Arab Muslim country like (UAE) is established and furthermore particular to women police officers is determined. Secondly, it also contributes to academic research on women’s employment in (UAE) which is an understudied context. Thirdly, societal behavior and its significance in women’s career in the Middle East are also enumerated in the present study. Finally, this study will also provide recommendations essential for the expansion of public policies in addressing the elements related to job contentment and motivation among women police officers in MOI and UAE in general by developing a suitable model of job satisfaction and motivation aspects.

1.9         Outline of the Thesis Structure

1.9.1        Chapter 1:

Introduction: The Introduction chapter plans the research inquiries, the implication of the survey, the influence of the study, brief investigation that will be used in the examination. Similarly, this chapter provides both an overview to both background by discussing the disagreement will sustain the production, modern leadership styles, job motivation, job satisfaction, and the relationship of these factors in link to women police headship in the Ministry of Interior of UAE. It is argued that both job satisfaction and motivation are related with other when it comes to organizational achievement. This knowledge, it was argued that the specific significant for law enforcement agency managers who work in the surroundings that can affect undesirably on job gratification and where offices are anticipated to remain achieving high standards with less supervision.

1.9.2        Chapter 2:

Literature Review: This Chapter will deliver relevant information from pertinent secondary sources. In this chapter, all of the aspects relating to motivation and job satisfaction will be included, especially theories and previous empirical studies. It will be based on the theoretical approach of Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation. The review will also examine the history of workplace inspiration and the productivity, motivational techniques and the present-day debate on the possible relationship between job satisfaction and motivation. The study will include the research on human incentive, theories of leadership that revolve around motivation and job satisfaction, and most importantly the women police in the Ministry of Interior in the Arab World. In this case, all of the aspects relating to job satisfaction and motivation will be included in the literature review, especially theories and previous empirical studies. Most importantly, this section will provide adequate information to the issue at hand. The research will identify the major factors that affect the job satisfaction in UAE, especially among women. This is important in designing a study model that will be the framework of the study. At the end, it will summarize on how Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation

1.9.3        Chapter 3:

Research Design and Methodology: This part of the project research will address research methodologies like research design, research philosophy, sample selection, sample scope, target populace, data collection methods, and proper data and validity and reliability issues. The researcher will try to prove or disapprove Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation by conducting research among a police women population. The survey questionnaire and interview guide are the research instruments that will be used in the study and will be discussed in this chapter. The study will also be designed based on previous studies. The interview sheet will be designed established on the significance of the questions aligned to the research questions and the study model. Consent to undertake the study and ethical clearance will be discussed. The surveys and focus group interviews will be the primary methods to amass the data from the samples of research. These methods will concentrate on measuring and evaluating the elements that affect the job satisfaction in the public sector in the UAE. MOI is the case study for this research.

1.9.4        Chapter 4:

Results: In this chapter, the researcher defines how the interviews to be conducted with respondents within police organization of (MOI). The researcher will analyze and discuss the information collected from different populations in this research. The data collected through interviews will be recorded in writing. The interviews will be guided via questions and each meeting will follow a similar pattern of asking questions and recording responses. In this chapter, the scholar labels how the interviews were carried out with respondents and Abu Dhabi Executive Council (ADEC) and Abu Dhabi Police (ADP). Moreover, the section provides the answers of essay examination which covers pamphlets related to the Abu Dhabi government that provide strong and official facts about the organization and secretarial approaches, polices of the near future. A further survey will also be conducted using structured questionnaire. Various methods of analysis will be used to interpret the data. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) will be used to analyze the assessment data. The sole reason behind using this system is to identify the validity and dependability of each construct in the model.

1.9.5        Chapter 5

Discussion and Conclusion: From the analysis and clarification of data, findings and recommendation will be articulated. This chapter will conclude on whether Herzberg theory of motivation applies in police women in UAE. The research will attempt to provide the solution of the study problems and provide possible future recommendations. The writing and revising of the whole dissertation is of vital importance in presenting the significance of the data collected from different research samples. The dissertation will embody the importance of the entire study and will present conclusions to the study. Further, this chapter also settles the thesis final remarks concerning introducing and executing a motivational model in the Middle East, with the specific focus on the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi Police. Additionally, it also shows how the exploration is important and how it can be applied in the future studies, it also provide vital account that should be employed in different organization to meet the organizational objectives or goals.

1.10     SUMMARY

The introduction has provided an outline of both sub-topics such as background plus the logic of the study, research problems, aims, and objectives, the importance of the survey, and the research design and methodology. This chapter has also provided an outline of the structure to which this thesis is going to be organized. Extra aspects of the research including the literature review, comprehensive methodology, and data analysis of the result will be discussed in the next chapters. As the study aims to examine the relationship of motivation and job satisfaction among women police in the Ministry of Interior (MOI). The next chapter will describe the whole background features that revolve around job satisfaction, motivation, and women police officers in leadership positions UAE Ministry of Interior.



2.1         Introduction

This chapter tries to give knowledge on how best to answer the research questions. The primary purpose of this research was to show the areas where motivation link to job gratification among women police in UAE Ministry of Interior and thus clearly outline the core causes of work satisfaction among the police women in UAE. This literature review followed the theoretical approach of Herzberg’s two factor theory to achieve the objective. The proprietor of the theory, Herzberg, argued that while in an institution there can be factors that motivate workers; there also exists elements that do not encourage the workers to put effort in their work. This section of the essay also aims at answering question whether there exist different cause of both satisfaction and dissatisfaction at workplace. To this end, it was found essential to examine two major concepts of motivation and occupation satisfaction. This section provides crucial discussion on the definition of job gratification. Models of job gratification are also discussed. Different methods which reveal how these theories relate to one another in explaining this mechanism also proved crucial. Finally, the chapter covers the measurement of job satisfaction which in turn reveals what motivates workers.

2.2         Background of The Study

Trends in the current world have made it energetic to study job satisfaction. Job gratification leads to increased productivity as well as improved organisational commitment. It also lowers absenteeism and turnover, thus leading to more organisational effectiveness (Abdulla, 2009). The benefits from the management influence employees’ level of commitment, creativity, and ultimately their productivity. Humanitarian interests have also motivated organisational interest in job satisfaction. These interests include the perception that workers need to be appreciated. The interests also touch on the psychological wellbeing of employees. Little job satisfaction, which could be as a result of hygiene factors, has negative effects to an organization. These effects include loss of revenues as clients choose other products. The loss of revenues can also be as a result of increased costs of inputs. Cost of inputs can be caused by wastage of resources by the employees who are not satisfied at work (Zeffane et al., 2008).

Job satisfaction will be discussed in length including how it is influenced by motivation. Among the issues to be discussed is the causes of job satisfaction, measures of job satisfaction as well as the theories associated with job satisfaction. When employees are satisfied, the organization benefits. It is hence vital to know the status of satisfaction of employees in any organization. To this end, various measures have been provided with which satisfaction can be measured.    

2.3         Concept and Definition of Job Satisfaction

This concept will be applied in answering the first research question that seeks to determine the causes of job satisfaction. Job gratification is the manner that employees understand their work. There are numerous factors that bring about this status of contentment. Various scholars have indulged on this topic and have shown how different factors such as supervision and job promotion affect job satisfaction (Schermerhorn et al., 2005). Most of them seem to be linking their studies to Herzberg’s two-factor theory since they mainly list the motivators and de-motivators of staff. The findings turn out to be similar and lean to the fact that job satisfaction is associated to personal feeling on work conditions. The significance of job gratification can be traced in the number of disciplines that have studied it. The disciplines include psychology, sociology, marketing, entrepreneurship and several others.  All these disciplines have noted that levels of job satisfaction vary from organization to another and from one individual to the next one in time. 

Job satisfaction is also viewed as an emotional and cognitive response that is tangible and can only be inferred. In this case, job gratification is providing expressive state originating from assessment of one’s involvements (Sommerfeldt, 2010).

Work satisfaction and the attitude of employees are closely related. More specifically, attitude is the voice from within that keeps telling an individual what is good or bad (Arnold et al., 2005). Thus attitude is highly associated with how good or bad workers perform at work. Spector (2008: 223) provides the definition of job gratification as a variable attitude that considers how people feel about their jobs.

According to Spector (2008), job satisfaction keeps changing and this is evident in the records set for the previous 30 years. This is supported by Herzberg’s theory which shows that what causes job satisfaction today may cause dissatisfaction later. The above seeks to provide a solution to the last research question that examines whether at times satisfaction and dissatisfaction can be as a result of similar factors. As noted above, there exist numerous causes of job gratification. Among those with huge impacts include employee’s attitude, conditions of work place and expectations of the workers. Different factors have different degrees of influence on job satisfaction. According to Schermerhorn et al. (2005:p. 158), job satisfaction is the level to which an individual feels either negative or positive in regards to a job.

2.3.1        Inter-relatedness between motivation and job satisfaction

This particular section aims at showing the various means by which motivation influences job satisfaction among police women in the United Arb Emirates (UAE). Inspiration is said to be at a profounder psychosomatic close to job gratification. It is connected to the employees’ values, goals, and perceptions. Motivation, therefore, goes beyond job satisfaction which is a feeling about the job. Despite most theories discussing job satisfaction, the extent to which motivation can influence it is not vibrant. Mullins (2006), highlights that job gratification is an inside state of feeling while motivation is a procedure. This is so because there are many factors that can cause motivation. Job incentive is future-oriented that is being controlled or geared by perceptions of future rewards and the association between presentation and plunders. Gratification, on the other hand, is past-oriented, mentioning to people’s moods about the plunders they have received. Job satisfaction indicates that what motives the worker will increase the productivity of work performances. In this case, job satisfaction is a gratification an employee originates for work, whereas, job pledge is the extent to which an employee stays in a job employee incentive, separately, is the liveliness that determines an employee to perform an excellent work.

2.4         Job Satisfaction

2.4.1        Affective and cognitive job satisfaction

Many different scholars have identified job fulfilment to be necessary in the world nowadays. Numerous definitions conclude that job gratification is the degree to which an employee feels contented with his or her work (Judge et al., 2001).  The fulfilment can be as a result various bases including the position of the working site and the mastering of abilities involved in the task. Job satisfaction is individually focused as somebody may feel satisfied with a particular job someone else is dissatisfied with the same job and under same condition. Job consummation can be put into two main sets namely: affective and cognitive satisfaction (Judge et al., 2001). Affective is the scenario where somebody seems emotionally contented with the entire job. In this situation, the approach of somebody relative to a task is perfect. 

Contrary to this, Cognitive or mental satisfaction is how a worker feels about certain aspects of the particular job. Somebody, for instance, may possibly choose working seven hours a day, but the task he is allocated demands 10 hours. In this circumstance, this person appears unsatisfied and may likely quit. In the police sector, soldiers of rank handle treacherous situations every day. If the officers are not well equipped, majority would feel dissatisfied despite being well compensated. This scenario may possibly lead to emotive behaviors. In the fore mentioned situation, both affective as well as cognitive job fulfilment may not exist (Bogler, 2001).

Measuring job satisfaction

Job consummation is irrefutably fundamental to every employer. It has been proven that job satisfaction heftily influences the worker’s productivity. If the worker is unsatisfied, their efficiency levels falls. To this end, employers seek to unearth whether workers attain satisfaction at work. To assist in this, methods have been established on how to measure the notch of job fulfilment. These principles might differ between foundations as job fulfillment differ does not compare in separate organizations and in staff. The popular belief is that with a high-level title and increased pay, employees would be satisfied (Saari and Judge, 2004). This is incorrect as many attributes result in job satisfaction. To this effect, various contributing elements are employed to estimate job satisfaction. Nonetheless, these essentials differ in the level of impact. Some are considered highly in regards to their impact on satisfaction at work as compared to others. Various analysis techniques have likewise been coined and assist in gauging the level of job fulfilment.  Two standard tests include Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Job Descriptive Index (Saari and Judge, 2004). Job satisfaction level can be identified using two ways the first being single global rating (Nagy, 2002). The subsequent means is summation job facets.  Measuring job satisfaction intends to define the quantity of liking associated with doing an assumed activity.

2.4.2        Single global rating

This is an answer given to one chief question. This issue puts all influences together and requires the respondent to look into all determinants prior to offering the reply. For example, how contented do you feel when working at your current job? From here, the respondent can be precise and say extremely satisfied, a little satisfied or discontented.  This method compares with the unidimensional model of determining satisfaction. The loss with this process is that the working conditions are not consistent. Somebody may become conversant with a particular section of a job while be unhappy with another. Considering this, it becomes hard to have a conclusive investigation by the researcher on matters of interest.

Summation job facets

This is a complicated alternative method to single global rating. It considers pivotal features in a certain position while interrogating the workers. The worker is questioned on the degree of fulfilment per each element. The common elements are current salary, nature of work, promotion opportunities and the relation with other workers. The member of staff grades each piece. In this way, the researcher can grow to a convincing end having considered all the issues of interest.

2.4.3        Models of measuring job satisfaction

The simplest and fastest way of measuring job satisfaction is attained by using the unidimensional model (Van Saane et al., 2003).   This as mentioned previously involves asking a worker whether he or she is satisfied with her current job. This model is found to be unsatisfactory as it does not take into consideration the various factors affecting job satisfaction. The subsequent concept is the inputs and outputs model. This model measures the amount of effort a worker one puts in his or her work and compares to what one gets in return.  The outputs may be in numerous forms including salary, prestige and job security. For instance, a doctor may feel dissatisfied if after attending school for many years, the society does not respect doctors. Individuals want to attain equal or more than what they put into a development. Even after considering the different factors, this model is still not sufficient as it cannot differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. 

The other model is identified as to as the Bi-dimensional model. The model is capable of differentiating amid the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is thus an enhancement of the initial two models. Responsiveness is the fourth model. It is considered an extra precise model. The increased accuracy comes because of its capacity to identify and measure changes in the level of job satisfaction when organizational policies vary. For instance, in a police station, when they are provided with modern equipment, responsiveness is able to measure the changes in job satisfaction brought by the acquisition of the new equipment in an organization.

2.4.4        Theories of job satisfaction

Different researchers have suggested several concepts in a bid to explain job satisfaction and its cause. These approaches narrow down to three groupings namely: interactive, situational and dispositional theories. Situational theories argue satisfaction at workstation to emanate from the nature of activity. It takes into recognition attributes in the environment such as climate, geography and colleagues. Dispositional approach view job fulfilment to be entirely from an individual’s makeup. Here, factors such as emotions and attitude become crucial for consideration. Interactive theories perceive satisfaction at work to be the outcome of an interplay between situational and dispositional attributes.    

Value percept theory

Value percept regards satisfaction in a particular assignment as to be determined by the individual’s values.  This is a dispositional theory as it assumes only factors coming from an individual can affect job satisfaction. In a given profession, various individuals look for dissimilar things. Someone might be in need of a greater wage while another could be after career development. As a result, the two people have different values and this satisfaction at work would only occur when their value is met. If all values of an employee were met, he or she would be highly satisfied. Whenever the values of the exact worker remain unmet, they would be dissatisfied. Under this theory, job satisfaction can be calculated using the formula

 S=( Vc-P)  X Vi  

This directly interprets as Satisfaction= (Want- have) x Importance. From this equation, it is clear that elements that can affect satisfaction at work must be of beneficial to the individual. A vital feature in this theory is the close attention paid to individual’s values and the outcome. One challenge this theory experiences is the close correlation between what an individual want and what is considered necessary.

2.4.5        Job characteristics theory

This theory considers five elements which when all are met, then workers develops tall levels of job gratification.  These attributes are intrinsic and include the following; activity identity, significance, independence, skill diversity as well as reaction.  This theory holds that jobs having these five qualities are perceived to be more satisfying as compared to those without. When the qualities are presented, workers get to identify the essence of the task. As a result, they comprehend what to do then. They are willing to absorb and thus pick up fast. Another attribute developed due to the presence of this five characteristics is responsibility. Workers develop to be more responsible for the actions they take. This leads to less waste and more effectiveness. The third attribute found is results prediction. This theory suggests that when employees are content with their task, they are set in a position where they easily predict the outcome of every situation or decision. As a result, production surges at work. This theory is in line with Herzberg’s theory as it shows that some conditions must first be met fore job satisfaction to occur. Lack of this factors may not necessarily mean that workers are dissatisfied, but their presence improves job satisfaction.

2.4.6        Equity theory

This technique focuses on the subject of equality. It notes that people compare the quantity of work they put in and the payment they acquire in return. If the two do not match with input being more, then people are dissatisfied with the job.  In this case, as per the theoretical approached employed in this paper, it means that wage is a motivator. Individuals working in the same organization also develop a tendency to compare themselves. They scrutinize their contribution against that of their colleagues having the recompenses of each in mind. If it is unfair, the individual on the inferior side may feel discontented. The elements to be compared vary, but mostly are hard work, adaptability, tolerance, commitment and personal sacrifice. To the other end of the spectrum, outputs may include job security, salary, increased responsibilities and praise. Just like Herzberg’s theory, certain conditions must be improved so as to raise the satisfaction levels. The difference is that in Herzberg’s theory he categorizes the factors into motivators and de-motivators where lack of some factors lead to dissatisfaction.

2.4.7        Affective Event Theory 

This philosophy is guided by the understanding of persons being emotional beings. As a result, their actions can be attributed to the emotions at the time of doing those actions. This theory elaborates on the impacts emotions and feelings have on job satisfaction.  It entirely disregards other influences other than those from within the employees. According to the model, there can be both constructive and destructive impacts from feelings. When the member of staff is jovial and pleased, someone develops a high level of job gratification. When the emotions are low, job satisfaction levels fall no matter the motivation. Opponents disapprove this principle by focusing on the sources of rising and fall of emotions. For instance, when a child is sick, this theory does not consider what impact this will have on the parent at work. Still, it is most expected that it will cause the parent to have low emotions and hence work dissatisfaction.

2.4.8        Factors influencing job satisfaction

For a worker to be termed as job satisfied, a combination of factors is considered, and all give a positive response. Therefore, the section sheds some light on the causes of job satisfaction among female police. Fulfilment at workplace by personnel has been termed crucial by various administrations. It has been established that the state of job satisfaction considerably impacts workers’ productivity. To ensure that the satisfaction level for workers remains high, these elements must be considered.

2.4.9        Working conditions

In the course of weekdays, workers are at work for many hours. They, therefore, should feel at ease through this time. Institutions must optimize the working conditions so as to get the maximum out of their workers. Some of the positions that might be improved include the spacing. Employees are eligible to spacious places. Cramped offices, for instance, confuse the mind and lack organization. This could cause the disappearing critical data. Also, production tools need to be advanced. Here, technological advancement is the answer as it makes work at ease. Working conditions motivate or demotivate workers (Fisher, 2000). When the conditions are favorable, improved status of job satisfaction are achieved. This supports Herzberg’s theory by affirming that when some factors are availed, people are motivated a scenario that can lead to job satisfaction.

2.4.10    Opportunity for advancement

According to Bogler (2001), no matter where one begins his or her career, there exist an urge to go a step further. Most individuals do not enter at their favorite positions. They, however, achieve the desired positions through hard work. As long as there exist an opportunity to advance, workers feel satisfied with the current job. Organizations should encourage workers to go for training so that they can better their skills and knowledge. This way, they enhance their odds of getting a promotion. With more skills, workforces are awarded more responsibilities. This development causes the employee to feel beneficial in the institution thus recording a boost in the degrees of satisfaction at work (Bogler, 2001). When there is an opportunity to advance people are motivated, but when the opportunity lacks, it does not mean that workers are demotivated. They maybe demotivated, but this is not guaranteed. This clearly rhymes with Herzberg’s theory of motivation. 

2.4.11    Workload and stress level

Workers feel recognized when more responsibilities are handed to them. Nonetheless, this takes place to a certain level. Beyond this desirable level, the responsibilities become too much for the employee. Time limits become difficult to meet. This state of issues leads to stress at work. The stress may be as a result of conflicts between the supervisor and workers over the issue of a deadline. This kind of environment demotivates an employee. As a result, job satisfaction levels fall.

2.4.12    Respect from colleagues

Respect brings peace from within. Every employee regardless of their position needs to be respected. Organizations should cultivate a culture where respect is mandatory. If there exist bullying at work, people develop less satisfaction at work (Judge et al., 2002). Any other form of disrespect leads to dissatisfaction as well. However, when workers respect each other and treat each other right, workers long to be at work. They are driven to labor over time, just to be in this warm conditions.  This way, job satisfaction among workers rise greatly.

2.4.13    Incentives

Employees get a wage for their effort. However, when one does exemplary well, they may be rewarded with a bonus. This comes despite being compensated for the same work in the monthly or weekly salary. This is a method of showing appreciation. When a worker feels that the organization values his or her input, her job satisfaction increases (Bogler, 2001). There are different forms of incentives. An increase in salary is another form of incentives. Increased salary can be given to workers who have labored hard in an organization for many years. It can also be given to individuals who attend seminars and workshops. Organizations can also choose to offer employees holiday vacations. This would reduce the amount of stress acquired at work and in the process improve job satisfaction. Not all incentives are monetary. Some incentives are put in place to aid the employees keep check their life, both at work and at home. A good example is the setting up of a counseling department which helps in calming the nerves of workers.  This improves the levels of job satisfaction naturally.

2.4.14    Training

Training improves the skills of workers. By offering training to workers, the workers feel recognized and important. This also increases their chances of promotion. As a result, the levels of job satisfaction improves considerably. Workers may be feeling uneasy if there is equipment which he or she cannot use. This naturally causes low job satisfaction. If such a worker is offered training to a level where he or she operates this machine smoothly,  then levels of job satisfaction consequently rise.

2.4.15    Effective application of skills

In the contemporary world, to find an excellent job, it has become almost mandatory that one must be educated. Illiteracy levels globally have been declining gradually. Many countries focus on how to end illiteracy and as such, many institutions have been started. As people become more learned, a strong urge to make good use of their skills develops.  The more advanced the skills are, the stronger the urge. If workers feel that their skills are not being utilized exhaustively, they are disappointed. Their levels of job satisfaction fall as a result. However, in an organization where the skills of all individuals are utilized well, the person has his or her levels of job satisfaction improved.

Importance of job satisfaction

Job satisfaction in the contemporary world has become a force to be considered. Institutions have grown to terms with the fact that a happy employee translates to better work performance. Job satisfaction is led about by a combination of varying factors. The work environment is considered as the greatest hindrance of job satisfaction. It is argued that without satisfaction at work, workers find absenteeism as the best alternative. When workers are satisfied with the work they do, they miss being at their working place. Elimination of absenteeism is a significant advantage to any organization. It has an impact on the work rate and the profits. Job satisfaction promotes responsibility among workers. When the employees feel satisfied, the willingness to take up responsibilities increases. As a result, the organization is saved the pain of hiring as well as training new staff.  

Organizational culture is a vital tool in any organization. It dictates what and how regular roles should be done. As a result, it causes less wastage of time. Job satisfaction affects the organizational culture either positively or negatively. When satisfied with work, employees have the morale to work, hence helping the internal culture flows smoothly. However, when workers are not satisfied, they wish to run away from duties. As such, the culture does not flow, and this causes time wastage. This points to a high cost of production and consequently reduced profits.

2.5         Motivation

               Motivation involves the combination of both internal and external factors which are responsible for stimulating an individual’s energy as well as aspiration to be continually committed an interested to a particular role or job that has been assigned to them (Peters, 2015). The connection that exists between job satisfaction and motivation is addressed in this section of the paper. Job motivation or inspiration tend to gear up people to work and maintain their job. In all organizations, enthusiasm is the most critical component towards the attainment of the set goals. The desire to meet a particular target or achieve better results is mainly by the interaction of both the unconscious and the conscious factors.

For instance, the value of a reward, the intensity of desire, and the individual expectations push a student towards achieving a better grade in school. Similarly, in the police sector, motivation enables women police officers to be as good in their job as their male co-workers. Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (2011) defined employee motivation as the combination of the forces that regulate the performance of the workers in any organization. Additionally, employee incentive regulates a person’s degree of effort and their stubbornness. Among the most common ways of incentive at any workplace include clearly understanding one’s task, the importance of the mission as well as having a comment after the completion of the task.

Among the most shared instigators in any institute include communication, opportunities, and goif6ts for achievement. The presence of a constant two-way message between the manager and the workers is a core factor that results in the development of interest between the two (Pinder, 2014). Every employee deserves to give the challenge to work on and a follow-up conducted to examine how best he or she has tackled the problem. Additionally, motivation and rewards make the employees to work harder. This also creates a competitive environment for employees to work even harder to achieve the rewards. Other employee motivators are allowing employees to have control over their jobs, providing periodic reports on the impacts of workers’ performance on the organization at large as well as challenging them occasionally.

2.5.1        Strategies of Motivation

Different workers not only have fluctuating levels of inspiration but also unlike orientation or types of enthusiasm. The route of inspiration is underlain by the goals and attitudes that lead to an action. Hence, based on the various targets and objectives that lead to an action, the Self-Determination Theory helps in distinguishing between the dissimilar categories of incentive (Deci and Ryan, 2011). There exist two types of motive that include intrinsic and extrinsic.  Intrinsic incentive involves doing something since it is enjoyable and entertaining, the act of doing somewhat since the results are separable constitutes the extrinsic motivation. Many authors have revealed extrinsic motivation as an impoverished and pale form of motivation that is distinct from intrinsic motivation. 

An officer who is intrinsically motivated is moved to act of fun when doing the work rather than the external pressure and the rewards after success. According to Deci and Ryan, (2011), the phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first experimented on animal behavior. The results of the research showed that some organisms participate in some practices that may be playful of curiosity-driven activities at times even when there are not rewards available. Some activities but not others intrinsically motivate people. For instance, in this context, some women officers are in the police force for the one reason that is they find the policing activities enjoyable and exciting. Others, on the contrary, are in the strength since they require money to support them and their families.

In the past, intrinsic motivation has been measured via “free choice” and use of self-reports that examine the enjoyment and interest of a particular activity. Deci and Ryan, (2011), through the Intellectual Assessment Concept that is a subset of the Self Determinant Theory, argued that motivators like communication between the workers and the managers as well as rewards are catalysts of intrinsic motivation. As opposed to a situation where positive feedback enhances intrinsic motivation, studies show that negative performance feedback diminishes the motivation. Examples of actions that are as a result of intrinsic motivation of women in the police sector include participating in monitoring activities to catch criminals and competing with fellow workers to secure a promotion (Abdulla, Djebarni, and Mellahi, 2011).

Further, still Deci and Ryan, (2011) recognized the fact that despite intrinsic motivation being a significant kind of motivation, most of the actions that people engage n are not strictly intrinsically motivated. Most them are based on the rewards that an individual is expected to get after the completion of a task, depending on their competitiveness. The above argument maintains that in real life, intrinsic motivation because substantially curtailed by the emerging roles and demands. The Self Determinant Theory shows that extrinsic incentive diverges highly regarding the degree to which it is independent to.

Interjected regulation is a common form of extrinsic motivation. It includes people performing some activities under some pressure from their superiors. Identification, on the other hand, encompasses a person accepting a regulation as part of his or her own. For instance, in the police sector, the officers have to memorize and act as per the set rules and guidelines. The rules are critical to their day-to-day processes. As time passes by, the regulations that a person has to become part of them and in their integrated form, the rule define self (Antikainen and Vaataja, 2010). A person will thus not be acting intrinsically but via the regulations internalized in them.

According to Gagné et al., (2010), efficient management practices of any organization largely determine the level of employee motivation. The following are examples of the most universally employed incentive strategies. Redesigning jobs by managers is applicable in the police sector with an attempt to decrease boredom and upsurge the level of motivation. In the process of  redesigning jobs, the managers have to consider job depth as well as its scope. More so, the idea of job reshape involves job revolution, job enhancement, and job expansion among other practices. Job rotation entails allocating different tasks to people on a temporary basis while job advancement, also known as vertical job loading involves providing employees with more authority and responsibility improve their performance and morale (Antikainen and Vaataja, 2010). On the other hand, horizontal job loading or job enlargement increases the available tasks in a particular task to reduce the monotony and boredom.

Another incentive aspect of strategy is that of flexibility. Due to the many family needs in today’s society, a nine-to-five job fails to work for most people including police officers. Therefore, many organizations switch to giving their employees a flextime, which allows them to have control over their work hours as a way of accommodating their needs. Some groups have gone further to try a compressed workweek, which involves completion of a full-time job in less that the set time. Others have tried pairing or job distribution where splitting of a full-time among two or more individuals. Teleworking allows working on a section of work outdoor the office. For the case of police officers, they are authorized to take home some work involving a crime. The methods aim at motivating workers by reducing boredom (Ahn and Janke, 2011).

The availability of an efficient reward system helps in the reinforcement of the type of behavior that managers want to continue. Such awards can either be inherent or extrinsic. While intrinsic awards are self-administered, someone else like a high-level manager or a supervisor gives extrinsic rewards to an individual. Another core strategy that enhances motivation is the empowerment of employees. In such forums, employees are given more authority and encouraged to accomplish their tasks.

2.5.2        Theories of Motivation

There are varied views regarding what motivates workers. Therefore, different researchers have come up with various theories of motivation to support their ideas.       Maslow’s Theory of Motivation

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) pioneered this theory and according to his argument, the motivation of employees should be focused on their psychological needs. He put forward up to five levels of needs, which any employee looks forward to having fulfilled at work. The hierarchy of requirements ranges from the lower to higher level needs and only after the fulfillment of a lower level need does a higher level need emerge. Providing psychological motivation through offering breaks is among the lower level needs that any employee deserves.

After achieving employee esteem motivation, an organization can then provide more challenging assignments that will allow their officers to reach their long-term goals. Despite this theory, being relatively competent, motivation incentives vary from employee to employee, and this may create the need for an organization to alter the incentives to accommodate all its workers. Additionally, no evidence that proves that all employees satisfy one particular need at a time. This disqualifies the application of the hierarchy of requirements (Taormina and Gao, 2013). It relates to Herzberg’s theory of motivation in that after a particular needs are satisfied, employees become satisfied and work towards more satisfaction. The only difference is that this is ordered in stages.       Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

 This theory marks the baseline of the literature review. This approach examines how environmental factors can cause either satisfaction or dissatisfaction at the workplace. Frederick Herzberg (1923) argued that there are some factors which when introduced into a workplace could encourage workers, and he called them motivators. On the contrary, there are other elements whose absence would de-motivate employees, but their presence would not motivate them.

According to Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman, (2011), motivators are greatly concerned with how exciting a task is and the level of opportunity that comes with added responsibility and promotion. Herzberg further characterized salary, supervision, work conditions, and the relationship with the co-workers as hygiene factors. Motivators include recognition, accountability, and advancement. The application of the two-factor theory, despite being a simplistic theory, is limited by the fact that what motivates one worker may be a de-motivator for another. Therefore, organizations should adapt to approaches that are democratic by enlarging the available jobs, empowering their employees, and conducting job enrichment practices.       Alderfer’s ERG Theory

As opposed to Maslow, Alderfer (1969) classified employee needs into three broad categories namely existence, relatedness, and growth. While existence is mostly concerned with the primary materials for existence like the safety and psychological needs, relatedness is linked to the desire of an employee to maintain a good relationship with his superiors and co-workers. According to the theory, growth is described as the intrinsic desire for personal development. About the Maslow’s theory, growth is closely linked to the need for esteem and self-realization. The two can therefore be seen to work in the same direction, but for different courses.

Further, the ERG theory expresses growing demand to satisfy more than one need at a particular time. As such, Alderfer argues this approach by frustration-regression whereby to in case a high-level need is frustrated; the individual has no choice but to increase the degree of satisfaction of the lower level need. The results of the research indicated that each’s needs are closely influenced by their personal values and cultural differences. As opposed to Maslow’s theory whereby sex is at the bottom of the hierarchy, in the ERG theory, it does not necessarily have to be at the bottom (Yang, Hwang and Chen, 2011).       Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland) of motivation

According to the Acquired Needs Theory, David McClelland proposed that the needs of any particular employee are acquired and ultimately shaped by one’s life experiences. He further explained that an individual’s effectiveness in job functions relates to three motivational needs, which are the affiliation, achievement, and power. An achievement-motivated person seeks motivation through the attainment of challenging tasks. This can only be made possible through the submission of a feedback report after assessment by the supervisor. In this context, therefore, a female police officer who is highly driven by achievement will by all means escape both high and low-risk situations so as to promote their performance.

On the other hand, power motivation is wholly dictated by a person’s need and aspiration to be effective, make an impact, and be influential among his or her colleagues. An affiliation motivated person has family relationships at heart and is has an interest in interacting with the people he or she serves. They develop the need to be accepted by other people. According to Ankli and Palliam (2012), most people do not possess one of the motivations single in most cases; their motivations occur in combination. Overly, achievement-motivated people make the best managers, but they can be too demanding towards their juniors thinking that they are similarly achievement-focused which is may not be the case. It relates to Herzberg’ theory in that some conditions must be availed for the three motivational needs to be satisfied. 

2.5.3        Factors Affecting the Strategies of Motivation

Inspiring police workers can be hectic. The managers or the executives of the subdivisions must strive to safeguard that all officers pursue their task professionally. However, many factors like strain at office might be accountable for poor performance. Crime fighting is hard and thus an officer may develop an “us-versus-them” attitude towards the population as a whole. The aim of any police department is to increase its overall productivity by heartening its workers. Like any other vocation, the law implementation part requires productive employees. Some motivators, however, are unique only to the law enforcement sector and not to any other professions. In UAE countries, increase in the total of female police officers into the squad, a step that has been a success. According to a report made in June 2015, Dr. Mariam said categorically that she believed in the capabilities of female police officers (Abdulla, Djebarni, and Mellahi, 2011).

The different employees have various factors that motivate them to give the best shot to the task allocate to them. Whereas some employees see money as part of a larger picture, most workers view money as the first determinant to excel at their jobs. The purpose of motivation in every association has the basis of four factors which are a reward system, leadership style, the general structure of the work and he organizational climate. Leadership style is a core determinant of how best workers are motivated and also how they feel about the organization. (Cohen, 2012).

Therefore, determination of the most suitable management style wholly depends on detailed goals as well as purposes of the organization. The most common management style has been the traditional top-down approach which is relatively dysfunctional in today’s society. In a police department, however, the most effective leadership style would be a more direct method involving the leader telling people what to do. The collegial leadership style is also very commonly used especially in the police department. The method mainly includes a situation whereby one person is in charge of an office, but he or she functions at the same level of skill and knowledge as the other co-workers. Not all the leadership skill work under all circumstances and thus once in a while, a manager may be forced to apply different styles to different situations (Cohen, 2012).

While every company is unique with particular types of reward structure, the rewards also vary from department to department and from person to person. Most people work so that they can provide food, housing, entertainment and clothing both for them and their families. Therefore, most of them will put the extra effort it earns them salary increments, job promotions or awarding of bonuses. The most shared welfares given to employees include the superannuation and health care packages. These advantages motivate employees work harder to attaining the set goalmouths of the association and stay in the organization for long periods.

Some jobs require high level of creativity, imagination and elevated levels of energy yet others interacting and negotiating with people to gain their cooperation. Studies indicate that jobs that demand considerably low levels of energy bring out the best energies of the employee and are consequently highly rewarding. It may be relatively hard to motivate female police officers who work all day under very tight monitoring, and thus, their work should be routinized and standardized to achieve good results from them (Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman, 2011). The police departments in the United Arab Emirates are struggling to structure their activities in such a way that they will match the nature of their employees so as to achieve maximum productivity from both the female and male officers (Abdulla, Djebarni, and Mellahi, 2011).

The management of any particular company is accountable for the creation and conservation of a talented administrative environment. The administrative environment solely involves the manner in which workers and their managers relate among themselves. Principles are put in place that forbids any employee from insulting, demeaning or disrespecting any of their colleague or manager both inside and outside the workplace. As a result, this factor leads to the creation of more respectful, happier, and productive male and female officers.

2.5.4        Impacts: Globally, Arab Countries

Since the success of an organization does not only rely on the technical proficiency but also on the interest of the worker’s, managers are challenged to employ strategies that aim at motivating employees to progress on their performance. The readiness of employees to produce good results depends on the capacity or degree of motivation. Whereas a negative motivation reduces performance, positive motivation of workers increases performance and better functioning of the whole organization at large. Once in a while managers have to conduct performance management, which involves checking to ensure that the activities performed by workers comply with the set objectives and goals of the organization.

In today’s era, both individual and organizational goals ae interlinked and thus as individuals motivate themselves to satisfy their needs, hey also in some way benefit the organization. Different employees have different motivators depending on their background, ability as well as their preferences. Similarly, dissimilar errands offer a different equal of gratification to various workers. The primary challenge towards employee motivation is the constant change of employees and alteration of the functions and the layers of hierarchy. According to research conducted by Manzoor (2012), he ascertained that the presence of a close connection between the level of job gratification and motivation amongst employees of any organization.

Salary and other monetary benefits were the primary motivators of job performance. Most employees fee that after the accomplishment of any task, they deserve to be awarded. More so, the general working environment of an organization can greatly motivate its employees to efficiently perform their duties. As an attempt to motivate their employees, institutions have got to offer more thought-provoking errands as well as make available development chances. Other than that recognition it is also thought to play critical role in motivation. Being the most important factor in an efficient organization, motivation results in the reduction of labor problems, increased productivity and production, maximum utilization of resources, a better image for the organization and provides a clear basis for cooperation.

Similar to other regions around the globe, in the United Arab Emirates the level of employee satisfaction is mainly significant as a method to advance the presentation of duties. Additionally, the high quality of services as a result of motivated employees is a leading factor towards achieving satisfied customers. According to Bealer and Bhanugopan (2014), highly motivated employees are consequently quality oriented. In this context, therefore, motivated female police officers mean better performance regarding crime handling and law enforcement. Motivation also involves organizational objectives in the UAE. As a result of motivation, employees tend to feel as being part of the organization, and thus, they can quickly and more efficiently adopt the capabilities and the skills used in the organization.

As per a study that was conducted to assess motivation in UAE countries, it was evident that most workforces are highly motivated by high wages and salaries. As a result, the level of performance is usually high throughout. Recent research indicated that UAE is far much ahead of most countries in employee motivation but still most employees are dissatisfied with the level of appreciation and recognition that they get for good work.  Approximately 53%of the total employees in UAE are fulfilled with their jobs. Also, about 65% of employees say that their organizations have allowed them a good work-life balance to reduce their stress and consequently increase their output (Bealer and Bhanugopan 2014).

2.6         Police in Arab Countries

2.6.1        A general overview of police work

In modern society, safety, safety, harmony, and constancy is the primary elements that should be accomplished. Currently, nevertheless, the mounting complications in the society entail a complicated surrounding that is forever on the rise. The establishment of police as a public institution should be mainly concerned with taking care of the lives of the entire citizen within the region or society. Therefore, every police officers should be in a position of discharging their role and duties bearing in mind these complications. In this way, police practices and consequences have to be scrutinized to take into thoughtfulness the increasing difficulties in the contemporary society, the development of understanding in the several field of functionality, and providing excellent services to the mounting complications. According to O’Connel and Straub (2007), the path taken by any police officer is always critical and dynamic. Therefore, advanced police sectors continually improve their operation in attaining the objectives of the way to overcome manifold multifaceted and complicated assignments, foresee fresh difficulties and carry on to provide excellent quality police services to all individuals in the society.

Police work have remained to be described to be the job for masculine individuals across the globe. has been suggested among the very “gendered” professions, predominantly friendly to old-style male sex features, anywhere it is supposed; women have been sluggish to join. That it is a demanding job, that encompasses long and tiresome time of duty (Sahgal, 2007). In UAE, while all the placements and positions are general to women and men, they are less presented in the police force and they are not put into field execution as compared to men. Frequent research studies have been showed relating to different aspects of women in the constabularies. Some of them include; development and growth of women in police sector, increased career aspiration, and gender discriminations. While not research has tackled the employment positions and problems that faced by Arab women police (Surender, 2010).

2.6.2        Police culture       HISTORY

The focus of police officers is to enforce and exert law and maintain order. This provides the staff with its distinctive customs and institutional difficulties that cut across the whole system in the department. Sometimes, police customs are often disapproved of, as being opposed to the transformation and restructuring, and this sector is mostly interpreted. As per O’Connell and Straub (2007), the standards and methods linked with police customs affect the conduct and functioning of police personnel.

Since the advent of police sector, the military has remained to be its main effects on the highlights such as regulations, disciplines, and practices. The kind of establishment presents a recognized hierarchical composition and strict administrative strategies, with authority and control centered among the higher position in the institution and the minimum possibility for personnel in a lesser position to have control of their work surroundings or the task they are supposed to perform (O’Connell and Straub, 2007). Police institutional culture in the advanced nations was researched for four decades and more. The idea of customs in police studies in mainly taken from sociological as well as anthropological research. Fundamentally, police customs are a collection of concepts, culture, acknowledged procedures, data and regulation of behavior, and basic abilities which describe ‘good police work’ and offer an awareness of the functioning of police personnel. Police personnel, bribery, nonstandard conduct, prudence, and administration connect a majority of the research to the correlation between police customs and the utilization of force.

The notion of police customs includes the integration of two chief factors; the representation of the impartial and expert crime fighters and the structure of relaxed viewpoints and activities. Police should, therefore, build up work personality, because of their job surroundings and demands, particularly due to the necessary factors of their employment conditions like power, competence, and hazard. According to O’Connell and Straub (2007), denotes that the possible risks of regular police occupation result in police personnel developing a sense of distrust of the public and isolating themselves from them.

Other studies have identified that the job of the police is among the extremely hazardous profession, as it calls for handling unforeseen circumstances in the public sphere. Hoque et al. (2004), puts forward that the characteristics of the police are different from the various other public sector undertakings as its role entails it to deal with the public. It is also possible that every employee in public sector undertakings may have gone through comparable situations, yet the allegations for policing might contain different outcomes.

The table below presents an illustration of the differences between public sector undertakings and the police sector.

Table 1: Differences between public sector undertakings and the police sector

SubjectPolice ServiceOther Public Sectors
Environment  Hazardous, dynamic, and extremely risky  Not stable and less predictable
Amenities  Promote safety and protect the communityDeliver community with healthy services
Objects  Reduce cost of demandAdopt new users par strategy and recover cost
Revenues  Funds the government institutionTaxes, contributions and charges.

Source: Hoque et al., (2004).

            According to my suggestion, factors like institutional and environmental elements affect officers’ awareness of their establishment’s customs that subsequently assist in fashioning their direction towards policing, and their contentment with their job. Legal age studies on the work satisfaction in the police sector were conducted in correlation to personal features while omitting the part of the institutional customs and situational aspects. Because job surroundings are a vital changeable factor that defines work contentment, research papers taken from institutional researchers revealing the correlation between the institutional backing and professional satisfaction are further included.

2.6.3        Police reform

The expansion and progress of policing necessitate numerous transformations. In the early days, many could witness noteworthy efforts to restructure and reorganization the intuitional practices in the police force. The structural changes have transformed several features of the institutional context wherein policing is done and sequentially, the job of police personnel has altered; as a result, their dedication and fulfillment might have been impacted further. Initiatives for better effectiveness, proposals like latest public administration as well as alterations in the ‘place of work’ viewpoint have ensured that the police re-align their outdated attitude and transform the military tactic to policing. About this, numerous researches have examined the way transitional nations support fundamental police restructuring to institute latest police teams that connect the decree of law, safeguard human rights, and work for the public equally. In addition, the inferences of the most recent police restructuring have revealed a trend to advance to an additionally decentralized arrangement, notions of professionalism for workers as well as effectual interaction, be it among workers internally or with the public.

The challenging aspects of the contemporary policing would require the use of the variety of the plans, further than customary meanings and possessions, to confront upcoming difficulties. Some reform in the policing sectors have taken place, and probably the future change will consider fields such as employees who should be recruited and trained, management sources like administrations and institutional reforms, and the society as a whole. Consequently, several research papers about the management and functioning of the police department highlights and the distinctive work practices of the police establishment and the endeavors carried on to improve the effectiveness and the general maintain ace of the functioning of the police.

They also point out that many efforts should be employed to improve the efficacy as well as work contentment. On the other hand, the advent of modern police reforms is categorised in three models that includes corruption, community education, and professionalism. Police reforms should work toward accomplishing these models. To counter corruption, these police campaigners indorse the militarization of the police construction and organization, hassled the essential for thorough training, the growth of particular expertise, and outline of governor mechanism on police department work (Chalom et al., 2002).

The table below compares the traditional administrative and organization reform from that of the current state

Table 2: Traditional administrative and organization reform

Traditional ApproachInnovative/ Current Approach
Administrative and ranked management; Obedience with rules and the codes of conduct: Focused structures: Police culture limiting accountability, autonomy, and responsibilityTraining focusing on physical fitness and defence techniquesEffectiveness criteria are based on rapidity of interventions, number of arrest, and number of persecutions.Strategic management, accent on efficiency, promotion communication, promotion of flexibility, and decentralised strictures Promote communication, and being open:Training that enhance balance of law enforcement, and effectiveness Effectiveness criteria based on public satisfaction and quality of police service.

Source: Chalom at al., 2002.

2.6.4        Roles

One of the central roles of a police officer is to maintain security and prevention. According to Chalom et al. (2002), safety is a common product, a vital constituent of sustainable civilization growth. Any effective defensive and community growth action aimed at plummeting crime and safeguard, healthy community calls on local subtleties of interchange, companies, and immediacy. Police should also motivate participation of both local and international government to maintain peace.

Chalom et al. (2002), presents Sir Roberts Peel nine principles, which summarizes the roles played by police. In this scenario, these policies designate the rudimentary assignment for which the police occur within the society. Their primary duty is to bring order and prevent crime. The principles are described below;

    The police have the ability to carry out their functions independently upon community endorsement of police movements.

    Police must secure the willing of partnerships of the public in freely participating in the observing the commandment to be gifted to reach and continue their admiration to the public.

    Police seek to reserve the public errand not through caring to public estimation but continuously representing complete independent provision to the law.

    The extent of the partnership of the public that can be protected weakens respectively to the necessity of the use of the physical force.

    Police use physical force to the extent necessary to ensure observance of the law.

    Police, at all cost should maintain the relation of the public and that of law being a member of the public, it is therefore, their duty to educate all citizens for the welfare of existence.

Other roles played by police include;


Administrators call to patrol the backbone of the department and it is the most time consuming role of police. The duty of patrol includes;

Investigating traffic accidents,

Responding to calls,

Caring for injured people,

Attempt to resolve domestic disputes

Respond to radio calls.

Police in patrol use both directed patrol and preventative patrol as techniques of dealing or replying to any targeted crimes. Other methods include aggressive patrol and foot patrol.

    Investigative functions or roles

Detectives may be the aid to be the most glorified police officers. Investigative police form police investigation department that focuses on investigating the crime. A criminal investigation engaged in illegal act. The investigative functions of a police comprise of;

    Locate witnesses and suspects

    Arrest criminals

    Collect, preserve and analyze evidence

    Interview witnesses

    Interrogate suspects

    Write reports

    Recover stolen property

    Seize contraband

    Prepare cases and testify in court

The difference between a detective, and a general police officer, is that examiners enjoy several compensations over patrol officers. They do not put on uniforms and they have secrecy during their work sessions. In addition, they have offices and desks, have weekend off and receive high rewards.

2.6.5        Leadership styles

So far, scholars have extensively recognized the topic of leadership, with a vast amount of exploration being showed into leadership styles. There are also various debates in the fiction concerning control in different contexts and organizational cultures. This interest in leadership and job satisfaction is understandable as real leadership is vital to the success of any organization. In addition, leadership styles are found to associate positively employee’s opinions (Moyes et al., 2008; Jung et al., 2009; Hamdia and Phadett, 2011). Since employees have different cultures and thoughts, therefore it is essential that the leader deals with all these cultural differences and leads all the team members successfully to achieve the targets set for that group (Yukl, 2010; Scroggins, 2008; Northouse, 2010). This research reflects on the wider debate into the significance and importance which leadership has upon employability and job satisfaction, an area that the current research atempts to explore further in the context of the UAE.

Police management is considered because of their close communication and leadership and motivation level. According to Sommerfeldt (2010), police administration is fully industrialized because of the graded countryside of law implementation, police culture, and civil service situation that confine the management expansion. There are various leadership styles adopted by the police department. In this study, we will review the definition of different leadership styles and the task play when assumed by any police officer. The concept of leadership is described in the literature by numerous definitions, many of which are confusing (Yukl, 2010). Furthermore, in complication, management is the difference to management (Kotter, 2007).

One of the mutual explanations of leadership is that it is the procedure of manipulating persons to achieve the organizational goals (Riaz and Haider, 2010). Although most researchers define leadership according to their primary areas of interest and personal perspectives, most definitions are grounded on the confidence that leadership is a process that occurs as one individual influences to facilitate organizational or group performance. Northouse (2010) identifies four central components to the concept of leadership: leadership is a procedure, leadership encompasses inspiration, management happens inside a group context, and headship comprises goalmouth accomplishment. Through control of belief and exercise of power, leaders can their beliefs and visons into reality (Bennis and Nanus, 2007).

Leaders are individuals who can employ their power over other people actually to transform their beliefs and visions into activities (Northouse, 2007). Bass (2010), describe leadership as; “The ability to influence others to act toward the attainment of a goal”.

While Mullins (2009) explains it as an association that enables an individual to affect the behavior of others, Lussier and Achua (2010) suggest that leadership is a social process that involves the direction of people by a leader towards the attainment of given goals within a certain context and by methods of communication. A leader in the organization changes the action and attitude of groups through the exercise of influence in a process by using effective social skills to accomplish the goals (Callan et al., 2007). Haslam et al., (2011) support this view and classes the social skills into relational skills, conceptual skills and technical skills. Hence, effective leadership combines the use of influence, knowledge and skills to facilitate goal achievement (Haslam et al., 2011).

2.6.6        Current styles

Historically, management has mainly remained related with men and ranked associations. The new philosophies have arisen that observes the changes in management approaches amongst men and women. Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles are chief to the sex argument.

Transformational leadership

In this style, leaders always educate and maintain the vision and mission of the organization for future endeavors. Leaders that employ transformational stylishness are always visible and communicate every time. They do not lead from the front line, but divide task among the team members (Hoyt, 2010). Both transactional and transformation are least expected within an organization in the sense that transformational identifies the initiatives that add value while transactional maintain routine to complete their daily tasks

Transactional leadership

Transactional leadership style is a type begins with the foundation that all employees agree to follow willingly their leader completely when they take a task in line to “transaction” or where at the end of the day, the organization rewards the employees for their compliance or completing the task. In this case, the manager possesses the right to “punish” the employees if their duty does not meet the required or expected standards. Similarly, the leaders will switch and achieve the income or recompense of the team memberships and using inducements motivates highlight them that the higher capacity achieved the greater the productivity and recompense.

Laissez-faire leadership

Laissez-faire stands for to let it be, and is used to represent a leader that have a handoff style allowing his or her workmates to complete their work. It is an actual means type only when the administrator supervise how the task is being completed and communicate back at regular interval. Frequently, it works for only members where individual is highly skilled and experienced in self-starters. Similarly, it is also referred to a situation where managers do not exert full control (Nour, 2009).

2.7         Job Satisfaction in Police Work

Police play a crucial role to the public citizens; police personnel are currently required to over the task so that they can deal with modifications in the state (Clark, 2005). Nevertheless, at times, the kind of police labor on its own could create strain and anxiety amongst police personnel since they handle volatile situations like everyday dangers and international terror campaigns. Police personnel is moreover continuously in the public glare and May susceptible to disapproval either from the public or the press. According to Grogan (2013), most police department fight with employing quality police officers and absorbent them as well. He notes that there are some factors to consider when recruiting and retaining personnel. One of the most significant factors when hiring police personnel is job satisfaction. There are varieties of influences that inspiration police officer’s job consummation level. They include, promotion, retirement benefits, and pensions.

Griffith (2012), asserts that job satisfaction involves some transfer and policy change within the police department. In recent years, the advancement, growth, recognition, and the work itself can lead to job satisfaction while administration, income, strategy, and work conditions can lead to dissatisfaction. Officers in specialized areas are now assigned based on the needs of the section and their job presentation. An examination related to job satisfaction at police department considers theoretical factors which traditionally significant and relates those elements with current reforms in the police department.

In Griffith argument, the claim of Herzberg’s theory to the association of police work. Other factors that lead to job gratification include advancements, job fulfillment, and leadership as specific elements that directly contribute to the happiness. Throughout the review of the previous work, Griffith discovered that there are often used variables that have been applied to what leads to job satisfaction for an officer; education, ethnicity, gender, and years of services are among the issues that lead to job satisfaction (Griffith, 2012). This comes to the fact that there exists an increasing acknowledgement of the important implication of this concept. Job satisfaction within the police department depends on career location and job project category. Human assets are an imperative possession in police segments, in their intention to have powerful crime deterrence and regulator, are exceedingly reliant on the execution proficiency of their employees. The drive for competence has brought about police powers making changes in numerous territories to expand the gratification among their workers since employee satisfaction is a vital driver of client gratification. It is accepted that enhancing levels of occupation satisfaction heads not just to a change in police laborers’ execution, additionally to a change in the capacity of the police energy to accomplish its objectives.

Another factor to consider is that the countryside of police work invariable includes a significate proportion of disappointment. Their work inclines to be a problematic task when likened to other occupations. Police majors have to work in all circumstances, in various circumstances, and in many cases with incomplete sources. One factor to be careful is the police environment. The work situation is the factor the inspiration job satisfaction levels in the police departments. Equally, work setting factors that consequence in job satisfaction include business policy, management, and association with supervisor, and work conditions. Some of the elements of a setting as a factor include achievement, recognition of progress, the work itself, accountability, growth, and development (Grogan, 2013). It is, therefore, obvious that a police officer’s duty demography plays a significant character in his or her job gratification level.

Sex and civilization are also two variables used to elucidate the alterations in job satisfaction among police personnel. This is greatly due to the past ascendency of white male workers in police society and indifferences to the needs of minority officers would be in the group least satisfied with their job. For instance, female and marginal are most likely to be disappointed with their job than any other associate of the police society. Although, there are no vast differences between male and female regarding job satisfaction and commitment to the police department.

2.8         Women Police

2.8.1        History

According to the historical aspects, women are always discriminated in all sectors, especially from the ancient civilization. Currently, the modern societies are likely using the double standards to deal with the issues that face women. Over the decades ago, the fact that policing was considered to male dominated career, women have been in policing and have challenged this traditional idea behind gender in policing. Most of the own police officer; have used their cognitive abilities, skills, and capabilities to prove themselves viable for the job. The advent of women in policing can be traced back during the years 1845, where females were employed in the police department as patrons and workers in the penal institutions and prisons to take care of women prisoners. These superintendents appeared first in policing positions at local prisons and after the long way from that, they were considered feasible employees for actual police work.

The current system of most government has provided women with an opportunity to practice policing and to illustrate enough their capabilities of services as police. Similarly, the court-ordered and voluntary affirmative action programs, facilities the entry, application, recruitment, and females representatives in policing. Agencies with voluntary assenting action plans pointed out seventeen percent were women, agencies with the court-ordered affirmative action plans exhibited that females comprised twenty-one percent of their applicants, and organizations with no affirmative action plan denoted females comprised thirteen percent of applicants.

Hitherto, many women are interestingly entered in the police department. And in the municipal country and range of 14.3 percentage women are enforced position to the sworn law and about more than 100 are imposed by state law. Women in law enforcement, pointed out, unfortunately, more articles showed on the police website described that smaller department’s females “hold less than ten percent of law enforcement position.” Women are successfully thriving in the police department, but they have some limited extent. The number of women in law implementation is increased due to the help of both assenting achievement practices and structural changes in laws. The women police who are in leadership position and provide additional value in the firm change within the policing make a significant contribution.

2.8.2        Roles

Women play significant role in policing. As much as policing is considered a masculine occupation, women have striven to enter into this profession and form different capabilities within the department. In this line, police workforce has grown abundant more varied with relation to gender and race (Sklansky, 2006). The new character of females sharing in the income-earning activity has come to co-exist with their primary status as mothers and homemakers. Women’s occupational status is closely associated with home and the family (Mangaleswaran, 2012). Especially Women have been in regulating for more than150 years and, despite stiff confrontation by those inside the male-dominated arena and community opinion, have tested traditional and orthodox discernments of “authentic” police officers; women have rummage-sale their abilities and capabilities in regulating to prove their ability to viable police officers.

Women police join to form associations, which are vital in policing sector. Female police staff relations are donating visible to safety sector reorganization, and they are causative to altering the philosophy of regulating and supportive female officers proclaim themselves within the service. Moreover, female police relations have the volume to do more tangible work. For example, introducing mentorship agendas for youth female officers and involving in the sectorial reform monitoring effort. Women police officers also involve in shepherding accident inquiries providing first-aid for injured, captivating protections to stop further fortunes; dialogues principals and witnesses, taking printed declarations from drivers, observers; inspects vehicles and roadways, detecting traffic control expedients and obstruction to view; makes essential street dimensions; clears the scene of obstacles and rubble.

On the other hand, women police officers assist in interrogation and investigations involving female prisoners and juveniles. This should be added to the search of women prisoners and assists police officer in the situation involving female persons. They also conduct female detainees and minors to and from jail in a courtroom, hospitals, and other places. Particular attention has been heightened due to increased number of women in police forces. For instance, there should be active strategies to recruit and retain women and clear incentives to prevent sexual harassment in the workplace (Rogers, 2015).

Women police deals with cases that concerns family protection. According to Rogers (2015), women police deal with cases related to women, children, and domestic violence. Outside this, women police officers in UAE largely work within headquarters and perform many tasks within the department. The roles are related to administrative, border services, counterterrorism work, family protection unit, and corrections.

2.8.3        Leadership styles

Contemporary theorist tends to support transformational management performs, which emphasize qualities like mortality, openness, comprehensiveness, and feelings. In this case, leadership is measured as power, but the measure of the degree to which a leader serves others. In this case woman tend to adopt transformational management style unlike men. Unlike men, women tend to demonstrate his leadership style while male leaders adopt transactional style. Previous philosophy suggests that the management methods most closely associated with women tend to better suit in the 21st century. These styles primarily focus on announcement, collaboration relationship structure, and group play that usually adapts better in stress environment.         

2.8.4        Current trends

A survey conducted indicates that Arab police women who are in leadership position exhibit transformational leadership styles, predominantly given their overall importance on the expressive intellect. Arab women front-runners observe themselves as exposed, reachable, and association oriented. They show the excellent capacity to syndicate the best of the management styles. Most of the police Arab women believe that they are healthier at multi-tasking than males are. They maintain their household role and beside conduct the career objectives as well.

Currently, most Arab women show high commitment in their job specification. They believe that the perspective paths towards management are paved with more problems, compared to men. As such, women police in Arab countries have a high sense of obligation, determination, and determination. On the other hand, Arab women perceive themselves as scrupulous in their work and more systematic in their action associated to men. Coming from backgrounds of academic excellence, most of these women leaders presently have developed in their careers principally through high presentation.

2.9         Arab Women Leaders Compared To Internationsl Women Leaders

Dissimilarities amongst male and female organization styles are healthily recognized, and this research shows that Arab world is no exclusion. To grasp what makes Arab women leaders brilliant, it is important to compare their leadership styles in the police department with international women police internationally.

Arab women perceive themselves as being filled with radical much more than the distant counterparts. As leaders, these women exhibition their inherently feminine traits and are appreciated for doing so, unlike in the west women in principal position often texture worried to act and perform like men.

Looking at the family factor, Arab police officers proudly agrees that family must come first, and that is of far vast significance than the pursuit of the career. These Arab women, therefore, strive towards equilibrium and do not feel grateful to disadvantage their family life to prosper. Separately, what they mean is that work and family must go hand in hand as opposed to worldwide women who are more eager to sacrifice their family exists at the expenditure of their career.

2.10     Challenges Faced By Women Police Personnel

In the police department, women are faced with many challenges that range from different factors. Hipp and Rizo (2010) examining several issues faced by women police in policing includes female officer edition into a male-oriented occupation, sex taste, typecasts of feminine officers, well-being issues exact to women, men and women arrogances near female officers, and physical problems to and of female officers. The three responding female officers who have experienced more than 15 years in policing are selected and analyzed their experience in the policing especially on changing pregnancy events and policies, existence the only female officer on the section, and feeling negative arrogances by older peers of male officers. The results recognized that the altering position of female officers being more allowed.

The employment status in women police indicates that the gender discrimination is the principal reason for the under-utilization. The behavior patterns and personality traits of men and females are different. If these differences are handled with proper care and better understanding is helpful to create an outstanding work environment within the police organization. The main conclusions of the study also recommend that the establishments worried to change the boldness of the male police workers and community should conduct several courses, workshops, seminars, and training programs. According to Randhawa and Narang (2013), notes that the most employment and issues that face women are gender discrimination. To deal with this problem, moat of the governments has originated and implemented policies strictly, which guarantee genuine equality between the female and male workforce in the police departments. The authorities should formulate several training programs, courses, seminars, and workshops to change the attitude of the male police personnel and society.

2.11     Factors That Affect Job Satisfaction For Women Police Personnel

Most researchers have identified that various organizational factors that create job impact on job satisfaction in police work are defined by autonomy, perception, and the capacity to perfume their work and the recognition they obtain. The challenges faced by female generals are concerning potential interior barriers (factors associated with a traditionally male-dominated police culture) and exterior obstacles (factors related to conflicts between family and work). The following section discusses the challenges faced by Women Police in general and in specific concerning UAE.

Societal constraints

Social support is said to be the situation of acquiring every societal instrument and affirmative support towards individual’s profession. Women police are usually emotional so that they have little ability and capacity to lead in the most leading institutions and organization. This is according to the society perception that women are incapable being in intellectually and professionally when compared with men. This makes women perform well when it comes to job satisfaction.

Administrative and Institutional Obstacles

Lack of formal maternity leave policy was the major challenge for women police in a department. The majority of the staff does not know how to deal with the women police at the time of pregnancy or when they are back to the full duty. Legislation and laws on policing system remain unchanged for women police. Female police were less probable to accept the management role. Male supervisors were usually perceived more favorably when compared to female directors. Moreover, women police exhibit a larger amount of positive social behavior when compared to men police and this belief has contributed in giving a limited job opportunity.

Gender discrimination

Is termed to be huge a challenge that affect human job satisfaction. Gender ground work changes are apparent to be much superior in male-oriented occupations like the police and the equipped forces than in conventionally female-dominated inclinations like education and treatment (Sahgal, 2007). Male professions are more appreciated by community, and men in such professions are satisfied and paid extra associated to their female counterpart. Policing is one of the maximum masculinized professions in the world, where women face some judgements and hardships because of their gender. They are not given significant roles, or the chance to handle critical jobs, grudging them of earning thankfulness and distribution power (Sahgal, 2007). 

Women are not positioned on conventional police tasks. Often, they are placed as either a telephone operator or a typist in the department and sometimes, they are even asked to cook in the police mess. Further, women police personnel are also discriminated against while sanctioning different incentives. However, the reality is that most women in the police (except those who want to escape from hardships) want to be treated at par with their male counterparts so that they get a fair chance to prove their worth. Women police personnel demand the same selection criteria, training morals, inducements and work timetables as those applicable to their male counterparts.

Role Ambiguity and Role Conflicts

Various studies have confirmed that there exist sex role conflicts among women who are getting into traditional male occupation. Due increased number of women in the police factor as role conflicts and role, ambiguity has increased in a span. Role conflict theory clarifies that that individual’s experience role conflict while others’ expectations for their behavior are conflicting with the individual’s expectations. These conflicts when to combine within an organization may lead to increased stress (Jacobs and Schain, 2009). Women are who are working in the police department are confused about the way of communicating and integrating others. The male colleagues are treated their female peers as little because of the lady-like behavior. Besides their active contribution in unpremeditated banters, support the danger of losing their members respect (Suman, 2010). The cycles of failure and de-motivation among entering of women in police department evidently proved the issues in both inter-role conflict and intra-role conflict. There is proof of both inter-role conflict and intra-role conflict that occurs within women inbound the police.

Low acceptance and Poor comfort level

In the police department, women are not fully regarded by male peers. Most of the men in the police service not interested in working with women subordinates or colleagues, they do not consider the women’ ideas and opinions seriously, so they do not want to recruit the women as subordinates or colleagues (Sahgal, 2007). A study on the attitude of 1974 male patrol officer and identified that males do not believe female police officers capable of patrol duties when compared to the male officer. That few males feel females are not capable of patrol functions. Moreover, women police personnel feel that their presence among their male colleagues tends to make the environment as ‘formal and stiff.’ In the police department the mutual relationship between men and women members is very low (Suman, 2010).

Difference in Leadership Styles

The leadership style is considered based on a lead role played by the male and female in the organization, which is proved in various studies. In the case of the police team, women’s are treated as under respectable at the leadership level (Osterlind and Haake, 2010). Leadership acts as the important factor, which creates a challenge to women in the police. Since women are recognized to be more people-oriented because of their socialization, they are meant to reveal as more participative, holistic, interactive, and democratic styles of leadership, while men are thought to be more task-oriented (Jacobs and Schain, 2009). Women tend to concentrate more on dialogue, open communication, group dynamics, and good relations. These characteristics are examined as soft, ineffective, and mostly indicated as the feminine style of leadership (Osterlind and Haake, 2010).

Job and family   

The major two demands of both male and female are career and family but women who most often carry the major responsibilities within the home. The major significant external career barriers were identified such as lack of adequate childcare, spouse/partner’s attitude, and family commitments. In addition, research has the exhibit that work-family conflict and child-care issues have influenced job satisfaction, participation in the promotional process and stress for police officers. These barriers are appearing to be more hindrance to women than man is. Women face the dilemma contradictory role perceptions because they play dual roles, one is managing home, and other is the career so that they face greater tests in striving for balance among their responsibilities at home and the responsibilities at work. Policing is considered as the multi-faceted profession because one of the biggest trials for women in the police is striking a proper balance among work and family responsibilities. Women sometimes may reduce their work time in the workplace. As a result, men often have an edge over their female counterparts in advancing at the workplace.

Career and family life

Both career and family demand pose the threat to men and women in police work. However, women are affected by this factor as they are playing double roles of administration home and aptitude; they face superior challenges in strongminded for balance among their duties at home and the errands at work. Controlling being a multi-faceted occupation, outstanding an appropriate equilibrium amongst work and family errands is one of the main defies for females in the police. They sometimes have to reduce their time in the workplace. As a result, men often have an edge over their female counterparts in advancing at the workplace. On the other hand, if women attain top positions in their departments, they are under more stress than men because of their dual roles are.

Problem of Coordination

Theoretically, women’s ability has continuously been underestimated; their roles have been limited to certain characters and shops and have been forbidden from full comment in a host of fields (Hipp and Rizo, 2010). Although they have been present in the law implementation occupation, they are often placed in the women’s cell, contradicting them full equivalence with their male complements. Even when women have been given full policing powers, they have not able to completely utilize these powers. This creates problems of coordination both among women personnel and between the women police personnel and their male counterparts.

            In conclusion, women police are treated as under-employed and under-utilized. The important reason for this under-utilization is gender discrimination. The differences in gender should not produce a negative impact on the contribution to the firm. Furthermore, poor awareness about their rights, accepting the bullying activities in the workplace and being patient due to the traditional roles determined by the society. The behavior patterns and personality traits of men and women are dissimilar. If these differences are handled with proper care and better understanding is helpful to create an outstanding work environment within the police organization.

2.12     Relationship Between Motivation And Job Satisfaction


Motivation and job satisfaction are concepts that are much covered within an organization setting. They are important factors in the hands of management and leadership in achieving organizational goals in an excellent manner. It is evident that keeping up the motivational levels of employees will tend to lead to real job satisfaction in the leadership strategy. Motivation is the stimulus and guides that control and guides human behavior. Motivation can be that thing from incentives, promotion, perquisites, and even encouragement from leaders to employees through completing a certain task. On the other hand, job satisfaction is the feeling that someone has when he/she have completed a certain task that was rated to be difficult. It also noted to be the asset of favorable or unfavorable feeling and emotions within which employee view their work (Austin, 2011).

In the general overview, incentive and job gratification are carefully related, such that job satisfaction is said as a type of motivation. Nevertheless, a person’s gratification with his job and his motivation to achieve the job can exist self-sufficiently towards each other. The only difference that exists between job incentive and satisfaction is that motivation is what is supposed to be behind the behaviors of employees while gratification is the desire of working and it is a sense of achievement have done the flawless job. Similarly, motivation can be either extrinsic or intrinsic while job gratification is a type of inherent incentive (Singh and Tiwari, 2011).

2.13     Police Women in Arab Countries

Motivation and Job satisfaction goes hand in hand within police institution. Women persistence to work because of needs determining their occupation choice. There has been progressive change within women educational achievement and society’s comparative developing boldness in the direction of women employed outside the home. Women police personnel in shows the distinguished the association amongst job gratification and incentive in the sense that happy employees are energetic and show high spirits of presentation and efficiency within the police section. Great motivation exists among women police officers in their job task, which influence their attitude that allows them to complete their job. To achieve job satisfaction and motivation in women police; the Ministry of MOI must provide their women personnel with all the necessities required to perform the job at hand and reward them accordingly with good compensation and benefits while women police officer will be satisfied fully and make a good turn toward their job.

Job satisfaction and motivation should be a factor that circulates the police department so that women should feel frustrated with their duty. The supervisor within the police department should reward both men and women police independently at the Dame rate so that they both of them can achieve organizational goals.

There is a trending study on matters regarding working policewomen in the Arab region especially in UAE. This may be attributed to the fact that UAE society is in a position of fluidity, and the republic has acquainted important communal, financial, and cultural vicissitudes in almost all features of life above the previous twenty years or so (Shallal, 2011). Motivation and job satisfaction in Arab police officers is said to relate to the level of educational achievement within the leadership positions. That woman is rewarded the same as men regardless of their position so long as the can feel satisfied after completing their duty of task.


In summary, the literature review indicates clearly that different forms of motivation affect the outcomes of the job differently. Whereas motivators lead in positive results, hygienic factors de-motivate workers. Job motivation is directly related to job satisfaction at workplace. A well-motivated worker is satisfied with their work. Various approaches are used to describe the concept of job motivation. Most of them however tend to lean towards the Herzberg two theory approach. Wage is among the most common motivators; with others being the working environment and the nature of the task.


3           METHODOLOGY

3.1          Introduction

Herzberg theory of motivation provides the framework for this research. This section discusses the procedure used in the research to get finding for three objectives. The first is to determine factors that cause job satisfaction among police women in Ministry of Interior – Abu Dhabi Police. The second is to assess the relationship between motivation and satisfaction at work among police women in Ministry of Interior – Abu Dhabi Police. Lastly, to determine whether factors contributing to satisfaction at work also cause dissatisfaction at work when not provided. A research design used to construction the investigation. This was done to reveal how the major parts in the project are brought composed. It also revealed how the sampling techniques, measures and methods of assignment worked together in addressing the central research question.

3.2         Research Philosophy

The research philosophy was based on different patterns of assumptions, concepts, and practices that were incorporated by the investigator. According to Saunders et al. (2009), research attitude provides for the establishment of the knowledge in a field and is constantly influenced by how a person thinks. According to Easterby-Smith et al. (2008), a grasp of research philosophy has a vital role in the in determining the design that is most appropriate, those that suit the nature of research, and seek to answer the enquiries in the investigation. The study carried out was guided by the philosophy identified after careful evaluation of all the existent philosophies and found positivism to be most suitable.

3.2.1        Positivism

The choice for positivism was guided by the fact that the researcher was determined not to influence the research. It was also found useful as the research ensured that there were no areas that would rise human interest. This philosophy adopts the same stance as naturalism, and it is often used for studying social realities that are observable. Creswell and Clark (2010) point out that positivist studies have outcomes that are similar to those of natural and physical studies. This is because the conclusions can be made into law-like generalizations. Using empirical study, the positivist paradigm seeks to shape theory, with the person developing assumptions about the correlation between two or more variables by using research studies and literature (Halleboneand Priest, 2009). Significant relationships between variables are then sought by empirical means, data being gathered for statistical testing. Therefore, with the positivistic paradigm, the fundamental perspective taken was one that considered scientific methods as consistent across all fields of knowledge; the method acted as a basis for scientific unity.


3.3         Research Design

According to Ogula (2005), research enterprise is both a strategy and plan of investigation in procurement answers to research queries as well as to switch alteration. Additionally, it is the strategy of action the investigator accepts for answering questions in the research. It sets up the outline for education and can be seen as the blueprint of the researcher (Kerlinger, 1973).

Various studies exploring leadership as well as job satisfaction are complete. These works lay the ground work for research to be carried out and describe the relationship at specific level. This study therefore adopted a descriptive research design.

Descriptive study employed in this study attempts to explain the characteristics of the study participants and estimating unit percentages of a particular population that exhibits a certain type of behavior and attempt to systematically describe the situation, problem, or attitudes.

Also, the research will depend on upon existing conditions in UAE countries, the independent variable could not be manipulated. Therefore, structured questions and questionnaire designs for the research were appropriate for the study. The respondent perceptions were evaluated through self-developed questionnaires and structured interviews, and for some reasons using indirect measures to increase the validity of the research.

3.4         Research Approach

Likewise, the research approach selected should link to the research questions as well as the aims and objectives. It is an attempt the answer based on research question by which the research approach is selected. The researcher employed the deductive approach. Hair et al (2010), describes the deductive approach as one a theory is improved, but is subjected to precise. To achieve this, observation among the women and their subordinates were looked into precise and general conclusion was made. The theory used. The researcher followed the framework provided by Herzberg two-factor motivational theory.  

3.5         Nature and Sources of Data

3.5.1        Nature of data

With a view of achieving the objectives of the study, data from primary and secondary sources was used. The primary data consisted of examination of the role of women police in leadership position within the Abu Dhabi Police force. Such data was retrieved from interviews with the women police and the administration of questionnaires. Other sources of primary data included interviews with Women police in leadership positions that added to questionnaires and observation sheets and checklists on the association amid women police in management position and job satisfaction with Ministry of Interior – Abu Dhabi Police.

Secondary data to be used in the study included published and unpublished information on job satisfaction as well as leadership in various sectors. It is from secondary data that background of the study was developed and the areas that need improvement identified.

3.6         Data Collection

3.6.1        Primary Data

This entailed all the firsthand information gathered from the field though the administration of the questionnaires, interviews, checklist, and observation sheet used during the study. 

3.6.2        Secondary Data

The data was acquired from local and intercontinental recognized sources job satisfaction, motivation and leadership. These sources included reports, journals, internet sources, broadsheet cuttings and region expansion plans in the republic. Such information was gotten from administration.

3.6.3        Population

The study inspected the inspiration of motivation on job gratification for female police in the Ministry of Interior – Abu Dhabi Police. The target population was police women and was made up of two major categories that were used to conduct the research as illustrated in the table below.

3.6.4        Sampling Frame

A sample bares a special group of the whole total. This subgroup is selected as a representative of the entire population. It has all the relevant characteristics of the mother population. Sampling is the technique used in choosing the said sub-group. It is the procedure of selecting a number of persons to be used in a study. The persons selected signify the large group from which they were designated. In this thesis, the sample frame included a representative sample of the general women police and those within leadership positions in the Ministry of Interior- Abu Dhabi Police.

3.7         Sampling Technique

In the research, Sampling plays the significant role. Sample selection depends on study nature and sample size used. Sampling permits the investigator to analyze a small portion of the target population, and still access data that is representative of the population. The researcher therefore based on sample takes the time needed and gives fast answers. There are various sampling techniques that include:

Random Sampling: Random sampling is an easy sampling method. Each member has an equivalent inadvertent of being designated. It has been observed that there in a large population, it is more difficult to select the exact sample size. In this study, random sampling was used. Questionnaires and interviews were distributed randomly to various women and their counterparts and it was quite clear that men are more preferred in police work than women. The study applied random sampling to obtain the respondents for questionnaires and for interviews.

3.8         Instruments

The study derived its data from primary source namely, questionnaires and interviews.

3.8.1        The Questionnaire

The widely established data collection tool to collect is the questionnaire approach according to Saunders et al. (2009). The questionnaires in this research will define an extensive testing on the random sampling and observations made from quantity of responses will be received because if the list of questions.

The survey was approved out to inspect the association between incentive and job gratification among women police in the leadership position at MOI. Advanced analytical methods used in the social investigation have emerged as the foremost procedure for the processing of survey data (Wilson, 2010). In measuring population characteristics, the survey can be valuable for the description of the population and the formulation of models for analyzing those characteristics. The researcher acknowledged the benefit of conducting surveys face-to-face, through interviews using mobile phones as well as the sending of postal questionnaires. The views, feelings, and beliefs that are obtained about people may be ends in themselves or used to add weight to a proposed argument (Quinlan, 2011).       Questionnaire design and procedure

This study assumed appropriate questionnaire design that assisted in data acquisitions acquired for addressing the research questions and objectives. Therefore, in carefully formulating the questions the following was considered:

  1. There ought to be a specific role for each questionnaire item, with the point of it being made clear;
  2. Within each of the four scales, every question group ought to aim at testing a specific variable;
  3. Before inclusion of an item, decisions ought to be made over how responses would be analysed and with which statistical techniques, as well as consideration, is given to publishing or presentation.

Every survey question was considered to ensure response validity, with the wording and language relating to the attitudes and perceptions of respondents. Some of the appropriate guidelines used to formulate questions included facts such as:

  1. Questions ought to be clear and straightforward using familiar vocabulary, concepts, and terms.
  2. A simple scale ought to be utilized for the respondent to choose an answer.
  3.  Questions that have a bias that encourages an individual response ought to be avoided.
  4. Questions ought to be short and direct so that respondents are more willing to participate and to avoid misunderstandings.
  5.  Ambiguity in the wording ought to be avoided.
  6. Confusing, negative questions ought to be avoided.

These guidelines were followed in coming up with the best research instrument possible. On the other hand, certain principles were followed during the construction of the questionnaire as below:     

  • A logical flow was provided by the grouping together of similar topics. One section related to demographic information and the second part related to content that addressed the research questions.
  • More specific issues that had been determined by the initial response of the respondent then followed initial, broad questions.
  • The construction of the initial questions helped to avoid hesitation.
  • The initial questions were made easy to answer, and the researcher emphasised that there was an interest in the views of the respondent rather than them feeling that they were being tested.
  • All of the questions were made relevant for the respondents.

There was minimal use of open questions; when used, it was at the bottom of the questionnaire.

3.8.2        The Interview

This approached provided reliable and valid data and relevant for the research. Yin (2011) points out that interview is a vital information source for research and that it is a technique that is valuable for acquiring qualitative data.

This study deployed semi-structured interviews. It involved face-to-face conferences with an example of MOI leaders and managers that worked in different departments, so that attitudes and perceptions of current leadership style practices in the MOI could be gathered.  Some grey areas were discovered upon analysis, and so the researcher needed clarification by interviewing managers. Different Opinions were collected on the connection among incentive and job gratification with opinions taken from different perspectives.       Interview procedures

            The interviews were conducted using the following procedures:

  1. Email and telephone were used to arrange the conducting of interviews with participants. Initially, the researcher introduced himself as a Ph.D. researcher studying at Open University of Switzerland. Study purpose followed and was described with the researcher emphasising that the responses of the participants would remain confidential.
  2. Face-to-face interviews were held with 20 women police officers from various MOI departments, with participants from a broad range of job levels and work sites chosen.
  3. During interviews, the researcher encouraged to talk more freely in an informal atmosphere. Interviews took 30-45 minutes and were showed in places most suitable to the candidates. The recording of some of the interviews was possible; however, several interviewees did not wish to be recorded. Various researchers have noted how tape recording may inhibit responses with reliability being reduced. Handwritten notes helped the researcher record valuable information when such scenarios arose.

With the use of open-ended questions, the researcher could ask further, more probing questions for a follow-up response. Interviewees have a degree of flexibility in their response to open-ended questions.

3.8.3        Justification of the methods

A self-structured questionnaire was designed through adopting and adapting research surveys previously used other studies. Prior approval was received from the MOI management, with a sample being delivered to them for pre-distribution review. Assurances were given that the information from respondents will be kept confidential.

The interview technique is considered highly useful for generating rapport, boosting response rates and dealing with quality, complex data. With open questions for sampled members to describe their opinions on area asked. Following this, comprehensive and complex answers were received from them. As one of the more frequently used methods of qualitative research, semi-structured interviews are often an easy way to collect qualitative data from respondents. The qualitative, semi-structured interview is viewed as non-standardized with themes to be used by the interviewer and sufficiently flexible for the exploration of areas as they arise (Easterby-Smith et al., 2008). For this research, there was an expectation that interviews with the leaders would provide, in professional terms, perceptions related to cultural dimensions of the organization and the manner in which satisfaction of employees would increase. Along with the flexibility offered by the semi-structured interview, new areas can be explored as they arise and, overall, it is considered the appropriate method for this current research that can help in the exploration of subjective meanings.

3.8.4        Data Collection Procedure

The sample population was selected from the membership of the Abu Dhabi police department. The research found permission from both the president of Ministry of Interior to conduct both education and access data from colleague police officers and various data from the UAE Ministry of Interior Database. The researcher obtained memberships directory inform of MS Excel spreadsheets, as well as the online database.  Use of questionnaires made data collection process easier for the researcher.  



4.1         Introduction

This study examined impacts of motivation on female police and the extent to which this caused job satisfaction in Ministry of Interior – Abu Dhabi Police. The first objective was to determine the causes of job satisfaction among police women at AbuDhabi Police force. Second objective focused on assessing how motivation influence job satisfaction among police women in ADP force. Third objective was to determine if both satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work caused by similar factors Abu Dubai Police. Last, but not least, the study aimed to show consequences related to job satisfaction for women Abu Dubai Police. Likert scale kind of questions were used to collected the necessary information (Scale: 1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree). The findings from this objectives will be compared to the Herzberg two factor theory of motivation as it forms the framework of the research.

4.2        Data Analysis

The results of the conducted survey were analysed and shown using descriptive statistics: overall response rate and means for each question.

Firstly, demographic data were analysed to provide a description of the respondent population by variables of Sex, age, tenure, rank, and educational achievement. In the second phase, data from the entire scale item were subjected to Principle Component Analysis and the resultant factors were described and interpreted in relation to their application to each demographic group. Thirdly, ANOVA test was conducted to explore the significance of the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction among women police leadership in the Ministry of Interior of UAE. This phase explored the impact of demographic variables and in this case, demographic variables like age, level of education, and gender was determined. The last phase involved the qualitative analysis of the qualitative comments made by the respondent’s officers. These comments were analysed, codified, and condensed into key categories and then compared with the quantitative results to generate a full ore descriptive picture.

Background of the respondents

As noted earlier, sampling is process of selecting respondent from a population, which the current research was from different department from the MOI. The aim of the sampling strategy was to represent the overall characteristics of the population. In order to perform a comprehensive procedure, three steps was involved; prediction of the sample size, computing proportion of the sample size in each category, and adjust sample size response. The table below present the total population of the MOI.

MOI SampleSample SizeNo. of Distributed QuestionnairesNo. of Collected Questionnaires
General Inspectors Office302015
Police Academy403020
General Director of Human Resource302525
General Direction of Punitive Reformatory Establishments302520
Total Questionnaire13010080

One hundred questionnaires were distributed to the targeted respondents among the employees in the Ministry of Interior. Random distribution was made to cover the gender equality as the research mainly focuses on the women police leadership. Eighty-One questionnaires were fully completed and worthy for data analysis at 76.92% response rate. The researcher coded and entered the questionnaires in to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software, and then the results of the descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were classified in tables and depicted in charts, which assist with the discussion of these findings and results.

TypeTotal number of distributed questionnairesTotal Questionnaires returnedTotal number of incomplete questionnairesTotal number of questionnaires fully competedResponse rate

            For the researcher to support the overall findings from the questionnaires, series of 30-structured interview were conducted among women police officers in leadership position within the MOI department. The table below represent the characteristics of the Interviewees at the MOI.

GRADENo. of IntervieweesDepartmentLength of service in organization
General3General directorate of Human Resource20 years
Colonel3General Directorate of Finance12 years
Lieutenant Colonel3General inspectors office6 years
Consultant3General finance and logistics9 years
Major3General Direction of Punitive Reformatory Establishments7 years
Captain3Police Academy5 years
Captain3Secretariat of minister’s office2 years
First Lieutenant Lieutenant3Inspectors office3 years
Civilian3Director human resources6 years
Corporal3General directorate of residence and foreign affairs.5 years

            Besides, the interviews focused of some of the main themes that emerged from the literature review and the questionnaires. The following were the number of themes presented in the study.

No. of ThemesTheme of Interview
Theme OneWhat are the Factors affecting Job Satisfaction?
Theme TwoWhat are the factors and consequences between job motivation and job satisfaction
Theme ThreeHow does motivation relate to job motivation in women police officers in leadership positions
Theme FourWhat are the current problems faced by women police in MOI?

The aim of this chapter is present the findings of both information collected from the questionnaires (Quantitative) and the Interview (Qualitative).

Descriptive Statistics

A total of 100 responses form the questionnaires were received and 30 interviewed response was also conducted. This totalled all the response up to 130 responses. Eighty-four were from women and 46 were from men as shown in the table.

Table: Frequency of the response for male female officer0073

SexFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative percent

Demographics were sought to identify the ranks of the responding officers of identify the significant correlations between rank and motivation. Previous studies have indicated that first constables tend to start their work with high levels of motivation and commitment but experience a culture shock, which leads to a rapid plummet in motivation levels during this initial year. Anecdotal assumes that this culture shock is as a result of the operational reality of immersion into an environment where the public seems to constantly lie to the officer and express hostility (Sommerfeldt, 2010).


The Questionnaires were divided in three sections, Part I provided, the general background profile of participants, and a discussion of the internal reliability of the data. Part II of the questionnaires measured the structured of job motivation and the levels of employee’s job satisfaction at MOI in general, while the last section, Part III, ask the participants to rank the most important leadership attributes and relationship between motivation and job satisfaction. The section also demonstrated the factors that lead to job satisfactions in Ministry of Interior.

Descriptive statistics is among the vital factors when it comes to the field of social science research, because it gives both the researcher and the reader with information about the research setting and compounds to the understanding of study context, and helps to show the researcher participants’ responses in the questionnaire study. It was necessary for a frequency to be run to identify the probability distribution of different categories of respondents according to the sample of demographic shown below.

Demographic FactorsFrequency
      Job PositionMiddle Manager4
Senior manager5
Police Officer50
      AgeFrom 18 to 24 years25
From 20 to 35 years50
From 40 to 50 years30
Over 50 years15
    QualificationHigh school30
Degree or Equivalent35
Master or Equivalent30
    Experience  From 1 to 3 years20
From 3 to 5 years30
From 6 to 10 years35
Over 10 years25

Looking at the above table, the respondent according to job position, age, gender, qualification, and experience are present in the charts below respectively.

            Below chart reveals the distribution of respondents according to the job position and the follower’s position. In this chart, is important to note that the response from Police person and police officers provided higher percentage. Captain, Middle manager, and Senior manager are very small in number at MOI, this indicates the lower percentage in response.

            In terms of percentage of respondents according to age, the chart below demonstrate that many police officers get employed at the age of 25 years and above, this is because of the percentage representation of 42%. Respondent whose age lies between 18-24 years was less, which denotes that employee at MOI, are considered at an average age of 25 year and above.

Noticeably, there was imbalance distribution of questionnaires between the sexes. One important reason for this was that, the study aimed at focusing women police in leadership position in the Ministry of Interior. Obviously, the low representation of men justifies the unequal distribution of questionnaire and possibly distribution of female working in the MOI.

            The result according to qualification shows that, almost half of the respondent holds a degree equivalent. This was also proportional to master and High school qualifications. PhD holds the least of the percentage respondents. This chart indicates that almost half of the percentage of employees has a minimum of university degree certificate. On the other hand, even the low-level educational qualification in itself may not give a true insight into the skills of those who hold them.

            it can be deduced that 27% of the employee have been working for MOI for1-3 years, while the respondent from 3-5 years present a higher percentage, which suggest that many employees have working at MOI from 3-5 years. Overly, it can be noticed that almost, 80% of the employees have been working for longer time runs from 3-10 years and above. The results also suggest that the MOI tend to keeps its employees and provides all means of support to retain their work for longer period. It also demonstrates that a high level of job satisfaction is present in the Ministry of Interior at UAE.

Reliability of the data

Testing of the reliability of data aims to measure the degree of consistency and stability by which the instrument gauges the concepts that assist to look into the wellness of a measure, in order for the researcher to be surefooted in his basis of analysis. For the researcher to measure the reliability of the data instrument used, Cronbach’s Alpha was employed. The minimum requirement for Cronbach Alpha is 0.70, and in this case, the reliability of the current statistics recorded Cronbach Alpha of 0.90 that exceeded the minimum values required.

Reliability StatisticsReliability Coefficients (Cronbach Alpha)No. of Items
Measurement of leadership styles in MOI0.9040
Leadership styles0.8830
Job satisfaction0.8660

The breakdown according to above table indicates that the first Cronbach Alpha reported 0.90, while the following question was almost the same with the third question.

Looking at the table on the data collected about leadership styles in MOI, the reliability the Cronbach Alpha reports over 0.70, which indicates that the statistical test on the data collected in seemed to be very reliable.

Leadership styleAttributesAll Variables (Cronbach Alpha)
TransformationalIdealized Influence-Behaviour0.73
TransformationalIdealized Influenced-Attributed0.83
TransformationalInspirational Motivation0.76
TransformationalIntellectual Stimulation0.75
TransformationalIndividualized Consideration0.77
TransactionalContingent reward0.80
TransactionalManagement by-exception active0.78
TransactionalManagement by-exception passive0.72

4.3        Results

In enhancing comparisons among women police, a demographic representation was found necessary. Independent variables were used and included: profession, level of Education, working years, job position and number of years of persons. Table 1 to Table 6 show a representation of population composition on the basis of profession, military grade, age, education level, working years and job position. Of the 50 respondents, 28 (56%) were between the age of 35-44 years and 20 (40%) were between the age of 25-34 years with the rest spread as shown below.

Table 3: Participant Classification Based on Gender

 Age GroupRespondents
118-24            42
5Above 548

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Most respondents were office workers representing 76% of the population as visible in the table below.

Table 4: Participant Classification Based on job position

 Job PositionRespondents
1.Shift Work28
2.Day Work20
3.Office Work38
4.Field work14

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table three shows most respondents (48%) being between 15-20 years of work experience at the force.

Table 5: Participant Classification Based on number of years working

6.25 and above8

Author (2016)

Based on the response 28 of the respondents (56%) were bachelor degree holders

Table 6: Participant Based on qualification

 Level of educationRespondents

SOURCE: Author (2016)

It was important to know the professions from which the women within the force were drawn from. Table 5 shows that 26 women officers representing 52% of the total women respondents were administrative employees by profession.

Table 7: Classification Based on profession

 Administrative employee26
 Computer data entry20
 Qualified technician10
 Senior technician2
 General practitioner2
 Civil servant6

SOURCE: Author (2016)

4.3.1        Findings related to objective 1

To determine the causes of job satisfaction among police women at AbuDhabi Police force

Descriptive statistics indicated that 15 respondents (30%) were police officers. The officer position was the largest group of respondents. In second position were Lieutenants and 1st Lieutenants who were each 11 respondents (22%), majors were 8 (16%). The table below is a summary of other respondents according to their grades.

Table 8: Participant Classification Based on military grade

 Military GradeRespondents
1.Fresh policeman 
2.Police officer42
3.1st Policeman 
6.1st Sergeant 
7.Warrant officer2
8.1st Warrant officer1
10.1st Lieutenant11

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Data on responses to the question related to appreciation in their jobs by their supervisors at all times and for good work and results recorded in Table 7. The response by Police officers showed the highest percentage 50.5%. The response by 1st Warrant officer had the lowest percentage at 2.4%. Other Mean points are revealed in the table that follows.

Table 9: Percentages for officers’ Level of Agreement to appreciation

Police Officer4250.6
1st Warrant officer22.4
1st Lieutenant1113

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Overall response to the various question related to appreciation are shown in table 8-9.

Table 10: Question 1: I feel that I am appreciated in my job by my supervisor

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree15
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

There are as many female officers as there are male officers who feel that they are well appreciated at their work. There are, however, more female than male who strongly hold the feeling that their supervisor appreciates them.

Table 11: Question 3: I am appreciated by my supervisor when I perform a good job

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree8
Strongly disagree 

 SOURCE: Author (2016)

Police officers strongly agreed to the views that their jobs made good use of their skills and knowledge on a continuous basis. They had a mean of 4.2. The officers’ status of agreement to this view was high. This is according to the mean scores which ranged from three to four and a half. The table below summarizes the means calculated for this question.

Table 12: Percentages for officers’ Related to Proper use of knowledge and skills

Police Officer4250.6
1st Warrant officer22.4
1st Lieutenant1113

SOURCE: Author (2016)                                                       

Overall response to the question related to a Proper use of knowledge and skills are shown in table 11 below.

Table 13: Question 4: Job makes use of my skills, knowledge on a continuous basis

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree6
Strongly disagree2

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 12 reports means of respondents’ level of agreement related to working environment. Percentage for majors were the highest at 50.6%; followed closely by captains 18%. The percentages of other officers are in the table that follows.

Table 14: Percentages for officers’ Related to working environment

Police Officer4250.6
1st Warrant officer22.4
1st Lieutenant1113

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 13-15 show the responses to specific questions related working environment at an overall level.

Table 15: Question 2: My job is challenging and interesting

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree18
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 16: Question 9: My supervisor gives me clear and sufficient instructions about the task allocated to me.

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree6
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 17: Question 10: My supervisor is objective and fair in my performance appraisal

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree9
Strongly disagree2

SOURCE: Author (2016)

4.3.2        Findings related to objective 2

To assess how motivation influence job satisfaction among police women in ADP force.

Overall percentages for questions 6, 7, 12, 13 and 21 ranged between 2.4% and 50.6% as it indicated on Table 16. Responses from police officers recorded the highest percentage followed by majors. 1st Warrant officer obtained the lowest percentage. Percentages on motivation from work environment are listed below.

Table 18: percentage for officers’ Related to motivation from work environment

Police Officer4250.6
1st Warrant officer22.4
1st Lieutenant1113

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Overall responses to the questions related to motivation from work environment are shown in tables below.

Table 19: Question 6: MOI provides appropriate training to improve my performance

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree8
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 20: Question 7: MOI has active HR strategies to keep employment motivated

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree4
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 21: Question 12: MOI encourages and recognizes teamwork

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree8
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 22: Question 13: MOI has good work policies and procedures

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree4
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 23: Question 18: I am satisfied with opportunities for promotion in MOI

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree3
Strongly disagree1

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Comparing these statistics with those of male police, it can be conclude that female police are easy to motivate. Despite everything going in favor of the male police, most of the male police do not feel satisfied with the opportunities offered. More women than men feel happy with the opportunities availed. This can be attributed to the recent efforts made to improve the working conditions for the women police.

Questions 14, 15 and 17 determined officers’ level of agreement with statement Related to motivation from remuneration and other financial benefits. Percentages generated for this question were low with Police officers scoring 50.6% as highest followed by 1st Lieutenants with 13%. The least percentage for this question belonged to 1st Warrant officer. It showed a level of disagreement in regard to the statements in question.

Table 24: Percentage for officers’ Related to motivation from remuneration and other financial benefits

Police officer4250.6
1st Warrant officer22.4
1st Lieutenant1113

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 23-25 show the responses to specific questions related motivation from remuneration and other financial benefits at an overall level.

Table 25: Question 14: I am satisfied with my salary

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree4
Strongly disagree12

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 26: Question 15: satisfied with the benefits from MOI

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree2
Strongly disagree4

SOURCE: Author (2016)’

Table 27: Question 17: satisfied with rewards provided by MOI

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree3
Strongly disagree6

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 28: Question 17: I feel motivated at work

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree15
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

4.3.3        Findings related to objective 3

To determine if both satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work caused by similar factors Abu Dubai Police

The idea here is to compare factors identified to cause satisfaction with number of people who really felt satisfied.

Table 26 illustrates that police officers were more satisfied by their jobs at 50.6%. They were followed closely by Captains (18%; Lieutenant-Colonels 13%. 1st Warrant officer obtained the lowest percentage at 2.4

Table 29: Percentage for officers’ Related to job satisfaction

Police officers4250.6
1st Warrant officer22.4
1st Lieutenant1113

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Overall response to the question related to job satisfaction are shown table 27-30 below.

Table 30: Question 8: I am satisfied with my job.

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree9
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 31: Question 11: proud to all other that I am part of police organization

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree58
Strongly disagree 

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 32: Question 5: I am happy to work for MOI

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree50
Strongly disagree2

SOURCE: Author (2016)

Table 33: Question 16: I feel very little loyalty about police organization

Degree of acceptanceRespondents
Strongly agree 
Strongly disagree88

SOURCE: Author (2016)

4.4         Confirmation and rejection of hypothesis

Hypothesis 1

H1: Job Satisfaction among female police can be linked to appreciation.

H10: There is no significant relationship between appreciation and job satisfaction.

 Feeling of appreciationActual appreciationTotal
Strongly Agree15823
Strongly disagree000
Observed (O)Expected (E)O-E(O-E)2(O-E)2/E

H1: There is a significant relationship between appreciation and increased satisfaction within the force. We use Chi-Square (x2) as test statistics at significance level of .05% (i.e. α = .05), and the degree of freedom (df = 5), Computed Chi-square (X2) =2.6 and Chi- Square (X2) critical =2.015

Decision: The decision is that, we reject the null hypothesis (H10) at 5% level of significance since Chi-square (X2) computed (2.6) is greater than Chi-square (X2) critical (2.015). Therefore, the null hypothesis (H(1)0)) of the study which states that there is no significant relationship between appreciation and increase in employee satisfaction is rejected.   

Hypothesis 2

H2: Job satisfaction and motivation complement one another

H20: Job satisfaction and motivation do not complement or affect one another in any way.

Null hypothesis H20 was rejected. The rejection was based on the findings that motivation and job satisfaction complement each other as shown below.

Table 34: Findings on Null hypothesis H20

Strongly Agree91524
Strongly disagree000

Table 35: Expected Frequency and Computed Chi-Square (X²) of satisfaction & motivation

Observed (O)Expected (E)O-E(O-E)2(O-E)2/E

H2: There is a significant relationship between motivation and increased satisfaction within the force. We use Chi-Square (x2) as test statistics at significance level of .05% (i.e. α = .05), and the degree of freedom (df = 5), Computed Chi-square (X2) =19.55 and Chi- Square (X2) critical =2.015

Decision: The decision is that, we reject the null hypothesis (H20) at 5% level of significance since Chi-square (X2) computed (19.55) is greater than Chi-square (X2) critical (2.015). Therefore, the null hypothesis (H20) of the study which states that there is no significant relationship between employee motivation and increase in employee satisfaction is rejected.   

Hypothesis 3

H3: Team work and existing policies have an effect on job satisfaction among policewomen

H30: There is no relation between job satisfaction and either team work or policies in place

 Team WorkGood work policies and proceduresTotal
Strongly Agree8412
Strongly disagree000
Observed (O)Expected (E)O-E(O-E)2(O-E)2/E

H3: There is a significant relationship between teamwork and policies and increased satisfaction within the force. We use Chi-Square (x2) as test statistics at significance level of .05% (i.e. α = .05), and the degree of freedom (df = 5), Computed Chi-square (X2) =13. 16 and Chi- Square (X2) critical =2.015

Decision: The decision is that, we reject the null hypothesis (H30) at 5% level of significance since Chi-square (X2) computed (13. 16) is greater than Chi-square (X2) critical (2.015). Therefore, the null hypothesis (H(3)0) of the study which states that there is no significant relationship between teamwork and policies and increase in employee satisfaction is rejected.   



The main objective of the study was to examine the female police in leadership positios as well as their relationship in job satisfaction with Ministry of Interior – Abu Dhabi Police. Zeffane et al., (2007) examined the impact of satisfaction at work on workers attendance and the behaviour in a utility firm based in the UAE.

Satisfaction at work was evaluated through the 20-item Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Performance evaluations were based on the utility company employee performance indicating system. Preliminary analysis of the data showed great differences on aspects of job satisfaction and performance between the two genders sides (i.e. male’s vs. females).

In general, women respondents were little satisfied with some aspects of their jobs as compared to their male counterparts were. Similarly, they seemed not to be doing well than the males on a number of work performance criteria were as supposed to be. This pattern is indicted a lot of an underlying similarity between job satisfaction and production, especially in relation to gender group male and female.

To manage this, questions were formulated to address the aims of the study which were:

  1. To find out  the relationship between Motivation and Job satisfaction among UAE Women Police officers
  2. To examine and find out the determinants of satisfaction at work in one of the leading public sector employment organization in UAE, Women police officers
  3. To examine the women police officers role in the leadership position at UAE Ministry of Interior (MOI).
  4. To investigate if there is any meaningful difference linking female and male police officers in selection and training to strong positions in U.A.E.
  5. How perceptions of job motivation differ between men and women police officers relation to?


Year of police experience;


Gender, and

Educational attainment.

  • What are the positions and rights of female police officers in leadership in the UAE?

5.1         Summary of the Literature Review

Job satisfaction helps to show to what extend an individual feels contented with the work he or she is doing (Judge et al., 2001). It is a crucial tool in any organization today. Many organizations have come to the understanding of this truthful fact as well as putting measures to enhance it for the betterment of their performance. It has many advantages attached to it including the reduction of absenteeism. Elimination of absenteeism favours the organizational performance greatly as it always increases the productivity of the organisation.

Different factors affect job satisfaction. This Factors affecting job satisfaction have been explained in a number of theories. Among these theories is equity theory. This theory compares the amount of work one with the compensation given. Many other theories exist focusing on job satisfaction.

Motivation refers to the combination of many factors that are responsible for the stimulation of an individual’s energy as well as aspiration be continually committed an interested to a particular role or job that has been assigned to them (Peters, 2015). And this factors can either be internal or external depending on the situations arising.

 Motivation has been understood for a long time to have an effect on people’s attitude. When they are applied, workers are happy to continue working sometimes even over time. With motivation, the working place may become very dull. Various theories have been forwarded explaining further on the effects of motivation. Different organizations in different countries use different strategies to motivate their workers. In UAE, while all the postings and ranks in the police are common women police officers are still under-represented in the police force and are not assigned to field missions to the same extent as men and this might be one of the contribution affecting their job satisfaction. Leadership today calls for gender equality among many other things.

5.2         Methods and Procedures

5.2.1        Design of the survey

Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The survey was divided  into two sections;  the first section  comprised a set of demographic questions on, profession, level of Education, working the number of years worked, job position as well as the  age. The question looked in to the establishment of the professional background of the respondents marked the end of first section.

The second section of the survey comprised of Likert-type scale questions addressing objective 1, 2, 3 and 4.

 The questions in this section asked respondents to rate their level of agreement with statements related to job satisfaction and leadership on the following Likert-type scales: 1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree (The statements are contained in the survey document at the appendix of this thesis).

5.2.2        Population

Only women officers were surveyed. Simple random sampling was used to select women officers for administration of the questionnaire while snow balling was used for interviews. A pilot test was conducted with a group of 10 women officers from M.O.I who were not part of the 50 sampled for the study. The population studied comprised 50 women officers for both interviews and questionnaires. From the sample of 50 women officers 15 respondents (30%) were captains hence making it the leading group of respondents compared with other military grades. This was followed by Lieutenants and 1st Lieutenants who were each 11 respondents (22%), majors were 8 (16%), Lieutenant-Colonel were 4 (8%) and 1st Warrant officer was 1 (2%) as documented in table 6.

From comparative analysis between academic level, experience or years of work and the level of leadership showed that all the 27 women had the military of captain, major or lieutenant-colonel held a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree or had worked within the force for more than 15 years

5.2.3        Data analysis

Variables such as Sex, age, tenure, rank, and educational achievement were used to analyse the results found. Principle Component Analysis was later applied before using the ANOVA to examine the significance of job satisfaction in relation to job motivation. Various charts were drawn to help show the results found. The charts were based on various variables such as age, job position and gender.

5.2.4        Conclusions

Below is the discussion of the results obtained for the three objectives.       Objective One

The first objective was to determine the causes of job satisfaction among police women at AbuDhabi Police force. Professionals and academicians have been focusing to identify determinants of employee satisfaction at work, as it is an integral component of the scheme to improve employment efficacy (Brunetto and Farr-Wharton, 2003). Any organization’s efforts towards   better quality output will include the identification of important influential determinants in generating various levels of job satisfaction among employees.  Such identified determinants are suggested (Oshagbemi, 2000), to be best utilized for the employees’ welfare as well as for thriving management.  Various studies (Ellickson and Logsdon, 2001; Spector, 1997; Reiner and Zhao, 1999; Zeffane, 1994) have narrowed the satisfaction determinants down to two main groups. Employees personal factors related to proper use of knowledge and skills at work and appreciation and work environment factors are the two identified groups as consolidated by the studies.

PART II of the questionnaire section include varied of questions pertaining the job satisfaction and job satisfaction. It also comprises of the job motivation and how they employee appreciated their supervisor. The table below present job satisfaction/motivation and job dissatisfaction.

PART II of the questionnaire section included varied of questions pertaining the job satisfaction and motivation. It also comprised of the job motivation and how the employee appreciated their supervisor. The table below present job satisfaction/motivation and job dissatisfaction.

Table 36: job satisfaction/motivation and job dissatisfaction

Percentage of Job satisfaction/motivation statementPercentage of job dissatisfaction statement
General satisfied20.73Complain about the job15.27
Like work22Looking for outside work19.30
Enjoy going to work19.49Embarrassed19.30
Meaning16.84Don’t like the environment21.58

Questions were asked to officers for Self-estimation as well as to measure the general motivation level and how they feel to perform good work. In addition, questionnaire regarding satisfaction at work made a positive view about being happy with the job while at the same time the items about job satisfaction showed that women are not satisfied in leadership positions in various department. Therefore, a feedback greater than three to job satisfaction items indicated agreement with the view as well as satisfaction at work, whereas work dissatisfaction is indicated by a mean bigger than the response. The response was greater than three on those negative statements indicating job dissatisfaction.

The percentage of satisfaction at work showed good results from at least five responses received from men in leadership position. The one, which was below the neutral point, was 16.84%, which was response to one statement. This generally shows that men in police work are satisfied with their job as compared to female counterparts. One field of exception that seems to be dissatisfaction with both kind of work they are needed to complete or the type of work involved denied them a chance to work. When the respondents were asked to respond to the general level of motivation at work, the mean response value was 20.73%. This mean value seems to agree to the idea that police in UAE generally are satisfied with their job.

The level of general motivation and job satisfaction was evaluated by the questions asked to officers to show how they generally feel and motivated to perform good work. The results obtained as shown below indicated that there was not much variable.  The data obtained were presented in tables and graphs according to the following age, gender, work experience, job position, and level of education.

 The table and graphs below presents all the responses pertaining the rating according to the above-mentioned characteristics.

Table 37: Question 8: I am satisfied with my job?

 Degree of acceptanceRespondents
 Strongly agree19
 Strongly disagree 

Table 38: Question1: I feel that I am appreciated in my job by my supervisor?

 Degree of acceptanceRespondents
 Strongly agree18
 Strongly disagree 

Table 39: Perception of satisfaction at work and job motivation

Demographic Factors                Percentage of job satisfactionPercentage of motivation
      Job PositionMiddle Manager6%8%
Senior manager8%12%
Police Officer32%30%
      AgeFrom 18 to 24 years42%40%
From 25 to 35 years18%20%
From 40 to 50 years17%22%
Over 50 years15%12%
    QualificationHigh school30%27%
Degree or Equivalent35%33%
Master or Equivalent10%18%
    Experience  From 1 to 3 years20%24%
From 3 to 5 years19%16%
From 6 to 10 years32%27%
Over 10 years26%32%

Job position

Below graph presents the percentage distribution of job motivation and job satisfaction among employees of ADP force pertaining job position. Policeperson who were satisfied with their job and motivation took the highest percentage of 34% and 32% respectively. They were followed by police officers, which scored 32% in job satisfaction and 30% in motivation. Senior manager and middle manager scored the least percentage in satisfaction and motivation.

Figure 1: Job position

GRAPH 2: Age

Perception of job motivation and job satisfaction was different according to age aspects. According to the percentage of job satisfaction and motivation employees aged between 18-24 years took the highest percentage of 42% and 40% respectively. Employees between 25yeas to 35 year scored the percentage of 18% for those who were satisfied with their job and 20% for motivation. Employees of 40 to 50 years registered 17% and 25% for satisfaction and motivation respectively. Employees of 50 years and above registered the least percentage of satisfaction-15percentage and motivation-12percentage.

Figure 2: Age

GRAPH 3: Gender

According to the respondents, job motivation and job satisfaction varied at a higher scale. Male employees registered 70% and 80 % for satisfaction and motivation respectively, while Female registered both 30% and 20% for job satisfaction and job motivation respectively.

Figure 3: Gender

GRAPH 4: Qualification

In qualification perspective, employees of degree level registered the highest percentage for both job motivation and satisfaction (35% and 33% respectively). Employees of high school level registered job satisfaction-30percentage and motivation-27percentage. Masters and PhD level had the lowest percentage.

Figure 4: Qualification

GRAPH 5: Experience

Thirty-two percent of individuals with experience of over 10 years were found to be motivated fully by their work followed by individuals of 6-10 years to be 27% and those 1-3 years to be 24%. On the other hand, individual of 6-10 year registered the highest percentage of job satisfaction of 32% followed by employees with experience of above 10 years to be 26%. 1-3 years was found at 120% and 3-5 years employees registered the least percentage of job satisfaction of 19%.

Figure 5: Experience       Objective Two

Objective two was to assess how motivation influence job satisfaction among police women in ADP force. Achievement of goals and objectives can be influenced by motivation. Higher motivation levels leads to better performance and outcome (Ahmad et al., 2010). However, not all motivational factors lead to job satisfaction as proved by the research. There are certain qualities of motivation, which can be altered. The objectives and possibilities are identified to alter an individual’s aim. In private and public sectors, organizations are inclined to recruit motivated and committed employees to attain their goals and expected outcome without the involvement of external determinants (Snipes et al., 2005). Any successful organization requires employees who are motivated to be enthusiastic, devoted and resourceful towards achieving the aims and objectives of their organization (Spector, 2003). Police officers scored the highest percentage of 50.6% followed by 1st Lieutenants with percentage of 13%. Despite the least percentage for this question 2.4%. being recorded by 1st Warrant officer, it showed some state of disagreement with the statements in question.       Objective three

Objective three was to determine if both satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work caused by similar factors Abu Dubai Police. To identify the consequences of job satisfaction for women within the Police force. Job satisfaction from literature review was noted to lead to happiness, loyalty and a sense of pride in the job or institution. Police officers showed that they were more satisfied by their job 19.32%, they closely followed by Majors 17.90%, Lieutenant-Colonels 17.68% 1st Lieutenant 17.02%, Lieutenant 14.81% ,   and 1st Warrant officer obtained the lowest mean score of 13.26%.

The questions used to bring out the status of satisfaction and the overall response to each question were represent by a pie chart as shown below.

Figure 6: Question 8: Satisfied with my job

Figure 7: Question 11: Proud of all others to be part of police organization

Figure 8: Question 5: I am happy to work for MOI

Figure 9: Question 16:  feeling very little loyalty in the police organization.

5.3         Implications

 With the large number of organizations and institutions dealing with the welfare of human beings established globally, the well-being of the workers and their work place should be well highlighted and dealt with giving solution to where problem exist, but the general well-being of workplaces has become an object of theoretical interest and extensive research. Warr (1987), describes the organizational well-being as the way in which it functions as well as how they perceive the quality of employees.

It includes the employees’ physical and mental health, feeling happiness and acceptability in society, which are all attributed with the term “job satisfaction” (Grant, Christianson & Price, 2007),  Described satisfaction at work as the pleasant or good emotional condition which is derived from an worker’s appreciation for his/her  work experience or occupation: is a very widely studied condition (Locke, 1976).

Job satisfaction be defined as a pleasant or positive emotional condition which is received from an employees’ appreciation of his/her occupation or work experience.

Study results have indicated that institutional behaviours, like warmth among employees, respect, and rapport between employees and superiors can be significant predicting factor on job satisfaction. Emphasis on communication and rewarding workers are more likely to drive satisfaction within the workers.

Data from the interviews and the second part of the questionnaire showed that the relationship between the juniors and their supervisors was not a warm one with the latter being deemed unfair in appraisal and not clear on assignments to their juniors. Where us a good number did not feel their skills were properly utilized or their work appreciated most of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed to have been very happy with their work and were glad to be working within M.O.I as illustrated in the data analysis. On the contrary issues of salaries and rewards seemed to arouse mixed signals from the respondents which were attributed to respondents with holding their true feelings either due to religious background or gender.

Summary of findings

From the study it is evident that motivation influences job satisfaction. The research has established a close connection between motivation and job satisfaction. However, as proven in the analysis of objective two, not all factors of motivation lead to an improvement in levels of job satisfaction. Contrary to the common belief, factors influencing job satisfaction do not necessarily have to influence dissatisfaction at work. The research finds Herzberg theory of motivation to be practicable. 

5.4         Recommendations

 The following recommendations were made from the findings relating to the research questions:

  1. It was noted from the study that salaries and rewards were a contentious issue within all levels of the women in the force and as such the review of the remuneration and reward structure within the Ministry of Interior would be a key point to improve employee satisfaction.
  2. The relationship between juniors and their supervisors is varied with those at lower levels depicting a strained relationship, the study recommends that a review of the structure within the force should be conducted to ensure proper share as well as indication of different roles and responsibilities between men and women officers and the trickledown effect of the same.

5.5         Areas for Further Study

The study recommended the following areas of further study:

  1. Relationship between juniors and senior officers as drivers to job satisfaction
  2. Other factors influencing job satisfaction for women working in M.O.I
  3. Differences in leadership styles between women and men


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