The paper reviews the past literature on the effects of mega cultural events across the world. A wide range of scholarly studies was analysed scrutinizing their methodologies and the findings. The planning of mega or large-scale cultural events demands expert management and pay special attention to political, social, and economic impacts. Huge investments and complex objectives as well as a multifaceted network of strategic effects and results characterize such events. According to past studies, mega cultural events can have both positive and negative effects. Mega event refers to a large-scale cultural event, which draws world attention and is attended by huge numbers of people.
Kim et al. study attempted to assess the social effects of an extra sports event. A similar study by Knudsen evaluated whether far-reaching cultural events could cause cultural scepticism. In particular, the research focused on residents’ perceptions, which play a major part in achieving support from the community during the event. The study employed questionnaires aiming to record the attitudes and perceptions of the local citizens. The research by Knudsen utilized quasi-experimental design to collect data from communities living near or further from planned cultural activities and performances. Another research was conducted in Portugal evaluated the insights of locals towards holding Guimaraes 2012 European Capital of Culture (ECOC).
Cultural festivals can be a source of negative feeling in the society. A study by Kim et al. pointed out that the local residents also worry about negative impacts, such as social conflicts, security risks (terrorism and crime), and traffic snarl-ups. For this reason, understanding these impacts was essential in accomplishing support from the local community. Other literature, such as Knudsen (2011) examining the social impacts of these types of cultural festivals was reviewed. In fact, such cultural events normally cause negative effects on the surrounding communities.
Precisely, residents living away from the key centres of cultural and artistic activities often consider themselves left behind by the splendid events. Subsequently, they tend to respond negatively, hence turn out to be less sympathetic. For instance, the Stavanger 2008 cultural events were used to assess the cultural distrust of Norwegians in terms of acceptance of cultural diversity. Therefore, persons residing far from the central point were sceptical of the events as compared to those residing close to the events. Additionally, individuals living farther from the core epicentres of cultural events demonstrated negative reactions towards inclusiveness of cultures. The change of attitudes towards certain culture can originate from renewing or strengthening latent or existing values instead of i