A Three week old infant immune system essay - Essay Prowess

A Three week old infant immune system essay

A Three week old infant immune system essay

  

In consideration of the fact that a three- week infant is very young and sensitive, the same case applies to their immune system. The subject three-week infant in this case study has a similar immune system to that of the newborn infant (Levy, 2011). Notably, the infant’s immune system is not mature. As such, it is unable to respond to an array of immunity issues. Instead, these babies are said to depend on the antibodies that they acquire from their mothers through the placenta.

That occurs before birth. However, they also acquire these antibodies from the mother after birth through the breast milk they get from the mother. From an analytical perspective, these antibodies rhyme with those that transpire within the system of the mother (Levy, 2011). Hence, they are adaptive to the environment that the mother resides and where she frequently move. As such, the immune system characterized by these acquired antibodies are assumed to at least protect the infants around their homes.

From a professional point of understanding, the antibodies that are transferred from the mother to the child through the placenta before the child is born are argued to be those of immunoglobulin G only. They are stipulated to be the tiniest yet the most abundant antibodies in the body. These antibodies continue serving the role of immunity shortly after the child is born. Then, the child now acquires the additional categories of antibodies (Levy, 2011). There are five categories of antibodies that are induced into the infant through the breast milk. These include the Immunoglobulin E, the Immunoglobulin M, the immunoglobulin A, the immunoglobulin d and immunoglobulin G. these antibodies serve the three-week antibodies considering that the body and its immune system does not have the potential to produce its antibodies (Levy, 2011).

Question B: Reason the physician took an aggressive approach

First, fever in an infant is often considered to be a normal occurrence. Particularly, the medical practitioners consider that any temperatures of a baby ranging above 100.1 degrees ought to seek medical attention. In this case, the infant age of three weeks with a temperature of 101.4 shows that the condition of the baby is way above the normal or accepted rate. Notably, the immunity of the infant at this age is very unstable and unreliable (Hamilton & John, 2013). Therefore, there is a feasibility that the child may have contracted one or a series of diseases that are hard for the antibodies in the child to mount or counter. It is argued from a health care perception that the most immediate cause of such fever is a viral infection. However, there are other dire causes of this kind of fever. They include infection of the urinary tract, bacterial infections, ear infections and finally pneumonia. These are, by far very serious predictions that if ascertained could be of hazardous impact to the infant’s overall health status.

Therefore, it is appropriate for the physician to conduct the series of tests to establish or ascertain that none of the possible issues could be the cause of the infections. For instance, the taking a complete blood count test is rational in the context of diagnosing the health issue with the infant. A CBC is used to evaluate utmost the entire health status of the child, as well as, any disorders (Hamilton & John, 2013). Considering that the child is prone to infections, then it would be important to screen the entire body system of the child. Secondly, the urinalysis is essential in the context that the fever could result from the infected urinary tract. Therefore, the physician needs to ascertain that it is, or it is not the cause. The lumbar puncture, though not very essential in this context, also assists in determining whether the infant has issues with the nervous system that lead to the child getting a fever. Finally, the blood culture test is essential in determining the feasibility of there being any bacterial infection that results from activities such as injections (Hamilton & John, 2013). Arguably, fever is also attributed to injections. Therefore, the test conducted by the physician could assist in determining whether recent cases of injections administered during childbirth or the first two weeks after birth could have resulted in the infection.

Patient Two

Question A: The pathophysiology processes of ARDS and their relationship with patient’s conditions

From a professional approach, pathophysiology is a concise yet clear outline of conditions that are observed in a particular disease or health state and the processes that operate within the system or organism. In this context, the pathophysiology intends to address the issues associated with ARDS health condition and the processes linked to it (Ware, 2013).

First, it is imperative to denote that the respiratory system is a resemblance of one upside down hollow feature. The entry vessels to the lungs that are termed as the tracheobronchial tree link the lungs to the mouth and the nose. Air tends to move via the respiratory system where the base of the trunk links to the twigs called air sacs. Further, the alveoli are bunched together. The oxygen that is inhaled is absorbed into the bloodstreams (Ware, 2013). It is at this point that the respiratory distress syndrome takes place.

Almost all the cells that comprise the alveoli are intensively thin. That is where the gaseous exchange occurs. Oxygen tends to get easily absorbed through these cell layers right into the capillaries. That is where it merges with the hemoglobin. The ARDS occur where substances that have bigger particles as compared to those of oxygen move into the capillaries. The patients in question get some of the vomit food substance entering the capillaries causing the alveoli to collapse (Ware, 2013). Therefore, the alveolar damage transpires over a period leading to complications. Further, the woman’s immune system tends to react to the health issue. Thus, it conducts a rush to the area of injury in a bid to salvage the situation. Unfortunately, there emerges massive inflammation which results in a series of pains. The capillaries ultimately get blocked, and the alveoli collapse. That is the reason the woman finally falls victim of the ARDS situation.

Question B: Approach necessary to reduce the Chances of ARDS complications

The most applicable approach despite the fatal implication that emerges. That is if it is not successful is the use of a low tidal volume ventilation. The adjustments made to the ventilator assist in keeping the metric of pressure at a value lower than 30cm H2O (Force, 2012). The approach is necessary and sufficient for ensuring that the air blood parameters are compatible with the conditions that assist the body in sustaining life. Unfortunately, if the pressures are allowed to mount and increase, then there lies the risk of an increased alveolar distension. Thus, alternative approaches may be used, but the most likely outcome is death.                     

References

Ware, L. B. (2013, August). Pathophysiology of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. In Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine (Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 337-349). New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, c1994-.

Force, A. D. T. (2012). Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Jama, 307(23), 2526-2533.

Levy, O. (2011). Innate immunity of the newborn: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Nature Reviews Immunology, 7(5), 379-390.

Hamilton, J. L., & John, S. P. (2013). Evaluation of fever in infants and young children. Am Fam Physician, 87(4), 254-260.