Industrial ecology is a relatively new term used to describe new environmental management paradigms which have evolved from the desire to have industries embrace environment friendly practices in ensuring that adopted economic systems are environmentally sustainable (Ehrenfeld and Gertler 68). Industrial ecology is slowly taking hold in industrialized economies as research has shown that industrial processes tend to heavily rely on the environment for raw materials yet what is produced as the finished fraction is only a small percentage of the raw materials employed. A huge percentage of the raw materials are pushed back into the ecosystem as pollutants and waste products (Ehrenfeld and Gertler 68). These waste products and pollutants tend to bear heavily on the environment by degrading it as these toxic products are continuously dumped into the ecosystem as economic output increases.
Industrial ecology calls for economic systems to adopt industrial structure designs and accompanying public policies (Huppes and Masanobu 641). These seek to emp