The association between athletes’ ability and perceived expectations has been the centre of attention for a wide range of research in sport psychology. For instance, the perceived expectations among the athletes are a source of anxiety, which is harmful to athletic performance (Thurston, 2017). The effect of perceived expectation upon the individual athletes’ ability is dependent on the interpretation of the athletes on whether it is regarded as negative or positive. The directionality of perceived expectations increases a new aspect to comprehending the association between athletes’ ability and anxiety (McDowell, Huang & Caza, 2017). On the other hand, perceived failure can lead to adverse impacts on athletes in accomplishment settings, influencing different phases of their lives. Moreover, perceiving the effects of failure to be detrimental offers the foundations for fear of underachieving and inability. Similarly, the expectations of a threatening outcome among the athletes provoke fear (Thurston, 2017). Challenges attributed to perceived anticipation of failure in attainment achievement backgrounds are common.
Mental set and episodic memories, semantic memories and procedural memory
A mental set is a structure for deliberating a problem. It can be determined by a desire or a habit. Studies indicate that mental sets help in solving the existing problem but connection to the erroneous mental set can be harmful to creativity and problem solving. A set refers to an array of expectations that influence experience by inspiring people to be more sensitive to certain types of information (Schacter & Madore, 2016). A perceptual set or expectancy is a tendency to perceive things in a particular way. Perceptual expectancy exists in all the senses.
Perception can be determined by top-down procedures such as expectations and drives. An impact of these issues is that individuals are especially profound to perceive some items, sensing them from fragile stimuli (Rensen et al. 2017). Sets can be formulated by inspiration and so can lead to people deducing vague circumstances so that they observe what they desire to see. Meanwhile, an individual’s experience of the occurrence in an athletic competition can be biased if they powerfully support some athletes. Michaelian, (2015) pointed out that perceptual sets have been illustrated in different social context. Persons who are geared up to deliberate of somebody as ‘warm’ are likely to identify a wide range of positive features in them, as compared to when the word warm is substituted with cold (Michaelian, 2015).
Mental sets are involuntary trends to deal with an emerging problem in a certain manner. They are determined by the previous habits and experiences. An unsuitable mental set can hinder the solution of simple problems. A precise type of mental set is referred to as functional fixedness where somebody fails to notice the series of uses to which an item can be placed. According to Schacter & Madore, (2016) when a person has strong beliefs that bad things would occur in their lives, they