High Protein Diet Effects on Composition of the Body in Obese and Overweight Women and Men With or Without Exercise
According to World Health Organization, obesity has emerged as huge public health concern in this century. In addition, overweight and obesity are the leading cause of chronic illnesses like cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type II diabetes, inflammation, dyslidemia, hypertension and cancer. As body fats increase, they cause the resistance of insulin and development of cardiovascular diseases. In both developing and developed nations, the prevalence of obesity is raising at a higher rate in both adolescents and adults (CDC, 2014). Diets and exercise play the main role in reduction of weight in the body. Research notes that weight loss diets reduce approximately 5-10 percent of body weight. Moreover, studies suggest that high protein, calorie-limited diets increases the rate of weight loss. In this respect, they produce more satiety and cause reduction low-density lipoprotein. In addition, they reduce energy expenditure loss and higher thermogenesis. Studies have suggested that high protein diets for weight loss have the ability to increase lipid profile relative to various weight control groups (CDC, 2014). The purpose of this literature review is to examine the current literature as it pertains to the study of high protein diet effects on body composition of overweight and obese men and women with or without exercise.
Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight
Obesity in the United States is widespread and continues to increase. Approximately, two thirds of adult in the U.S are obese or overweight. Generally, the Hispanics and African-American women have a high rate of obesity and overweight relative to Caucasian women. However, Hispanics men have higher prevalence of obesity as compared to both Caucasian and Blacks men. The prevalence of overweight and obesity tend to increase with age. Additionally, nearly 31.5 percent of adults in the U.S. are obese and 68.5 percent are overweight. Similarly, 16.9 of adolescence and children are obese while 31.8 percent are overweight (CDC, 2014). Besides, in the United States 30.4 percent of pre-school children from low-income families are either obese or overweight. However, difference exists between socioeconomic status, geographical locations, age, gender and race-ethnicity.
Risk Factors and Complications
There are various risk factors of obesity and overweight. Obesity is a product of consumption of diets with more calories that exceeds the body ability to burn through normal exercise. The contributing factors of obesity include family lifestyle, inactivity, age and socioeconomic problems. Firstly, family lifestyle influences the predisposition of obesity because families tend to have similar activity, lifestyles and eating habits. If a particular member of the family is overweight, there is high probability that the rest of the family will be affected. Sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of obesity. The body takes in more calories than it can burn during exercise Morenga, Williams, Brown & Mann (2010). Unhealthy eating behaviors also lead to obesity. A diet that has insufficient vegetable and fruits but rich in calories lead to obesity. In addition, fast foods high-calories beverages, missing breakfast and oversized portions leads to weight gain. Moreover, as the age increases, there are hormonal imbalances in the body that increase the risk of the disease.
Obesity leads to various complications such as high blood pressure, stroke, heart diseases, type II diabetes and heart disease. Other health problems include cancer, poor wound healing, gallbladder diseases and gynecologic issues such as irregular periods and infertility. Ultimately, quality of life reduces because it contributes to depression, disability, social isolation and poor work performance.
Traditional Diet and Exercise Approach
Overweight and obesity can be treated using traditional exercise and diets. In the management strategies of overweight and obesity, long-term goals should be established. The loss of body weight of approximately 5-10 percent has a substantial health benefits in management of high blood pressure, diabetes and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Other goals such as smaller waist circumference, increased fitness and better mobility should be established well in advance (La