This paper discusses the concept of sociological evolution between the relationship of sociology and globalization. In addition, it also traces the history and the development of glocalization as a concept, which was initially used in japan as famous business strategy. The paper also examines a broad range concept, theories, and paradigms in sociology and the problems of sociological application in the western culture to the local contexts including Malaysia and Singapore (Haque 2004).
It is tedious to locate the origin of concepts, theories, and ideas such as globalization as used in social sciences. In Singapore, globalization is a sinister process that involves almost everything in their life while others view it as a heroic process, which involves a path towards economic growth and modernization. Globalization theory attempts to explain the emergence and development of the global social and cultural system. On the other hand, sociology has been defined as the study of global society. With different definitions of globalization and sociology, many writers have differed in their opinions about the two concepts. This paper aims to explore various definitions of the two concepts from different writers. It also explores various relations between the two concepts as used in the literature (Haque 2004).
Globalization study tries to address the interrelationships of broad processes of society and social institutions including economic, technological, cultural, and political. Some writers such as Anthony Giddens and Immanuel Wallertsien have accused sociology as social science of the modern states. However, other sociologists like Robertson argue that sociology has transformed its scope to the social scientific study of the global processes. The unique relationship arising between sociology and globalization is that, sociology can examine all the aspects in the field of globalization (Haque 2004).
Glocalization is a Japanese term that initially meant to adapt to the social conditions of the farming technique. In the business world, the world has been adopted to refer to the global localization. Robertson argued that both glocalization and globalization should be perceived as two interdependent processes, for example, macro-localization and micro-globalization. Many sociologists from Indian and Germany scholars have distinguished globalization from westernization. However, through westernization, certain cultural and institutional features that initially started in the west have been incorporated in many of the geographical regions via the globalization framework. Therefore, westernization is perceived as the beginning of the process of globalization (Haque 2004).
Besides, other writers differ that glocalization is equivalent to hybridization arguing that, glocalization involves mixing and adaptation of two or more processes whereby one must local. They argue that glocalization must address the local culture, system of values and practices. However, this concept has been hybridized in Singapore through the adaptation of education system from both the British and US models. The concept of hybridization is viewed as an imitation, but the fusion with the glocalization remains appealing to many Singaporeans. In addition, it is through technology that has transformed the economy of Singapore and Malaysia leading to glocalization (Haque 2004).
The article researches on the usage of the term glocalization through using a sample of markets experts in Japan. This term was being used by these market experts to illustrate that the Japanese products need to be made local but in reality, these products were of global application and reach. However, the ultimate aim of the research was to identify the possibility of having a global culture rather that having many local cultures. Moreover, the research suggests that the challenge of simultaneous globalization of both local and locality of globality can be achieved through the strategies of micro-globalization and macro-localization. The strategy of macro-localization involves extending the boundaries locality and making some social practices, institutions, ideas among others to be global (Haque 2004).
A good example of the application of macro-localization is the emergence and the spread of religious and the ethnic revivalist movements throughout the world. On the other hand, the strategy of micro-globalization involves incorporating and adopting some global concepts and processes into the local setting. For example, social movements such as ecological or feminist movements and when some new marketing procedures or production strategies emerge in particular geographical location and with a span of time these methods and strategies spread far beyond the locality of origin. With the adoption of these strategies, the concept of globalization constitutes that of glocalization (Haque 2004).
However, these two strategies do not consistent with the conceptual model in most areas. For example, some cultures outline depicts a sense of uniqueness that a given locality had ever experienced and thus globalizing these cultures deprives this form of uniqueness of this society. However, these differences can be improved through hybridizing of different cultures. For example, glocalization can involve mixing, blending and then adapting two or more processes where one of them is local. In addition, the strategies can be improved through technological applications. For example, the adoption of the Singapore`s technological applications have resulted to its economic development (Haque 2004).
The conclusion precisely reflects the findings of this research since the incorporation of the technological applications globally can result to socio-economic development. However, there exist gaps where a set of globally valid concepts that would assist to evaluate socio-transformation processes that are in the long run connected with global transformation.
Haque, H. 2004. Glocalization as Globalization: Evolution of a Sociological Concept. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, Vol. 1. No. 2. July, 2004.