MUST HAVE ACCESS TO "Contemporary Conflict Resolution" Fourth Edition. Author Oliver Ramsbotham.
Discuss chapters 1-10 in the textbook. The Essay should be organized in 10 labeled sections corresponding to the 10 chapters in the text. Students should comment on each chapter. And all extraneous sources should be cited.
Chapter 1: concepts and definitions
The introductory chapter begins with definitions and concepts related to conflict resolution. A historical background of conflict resolution is highlighted, which began gaining recognition in the mid twentieth century at the height of the cold war. Since then, confliction resolution has undergone transformations as an independent field. It is indicated that conflict resolution is critical in social justice and social transformation. One important point that is pinpointed is that the aim of conflict resolution is not only to mediate the conflicting parties but also to address the underlying factors. This is essential because failure to address the factors that lead to conflict in the first, there is likelihood of getting back to the conflict. The various conflict resolution models are addressed. The discussed models include the Galtung’s models of conflict, violence and peace, conflict escalation and de escalation model, hourglass model. There is the conflict tree model, which though it has not been comprehensively discussed, it is one of the best models since it clearly shows the root causes, the core problem and the effects, which include violent conflict. Another notable aspect outlined is the acknowledgement of three forms of violence, which are direct violence, structural violence, and cultural violence. The three are interlinked, but in the process of a violent conflict, the direct violence is first addressed since it has direct impact on the people, then the other two are systematically addressed.
Chapter 2: conflict resolution: origins, foundations and development of the field
This chapter traces the origins and foundations of conflict resolution as a scholarly and as critical field in international relations. As noted in chapter one, conflict resolution as an independent field started in the 1950s and 60s. Development of conflict resolution field is placed under four general generations. They are outlined chronologically from the early generation in pre Second World War era to the latest. The first generation, which is also referred to as precursors is period from 1918 to 1945. During this period international relations (IR) was established as an academic field. This was part of effort to study peace and development of world order. The rise of the study of IR and peace was aimed finding ways to resolve conflicts through non violence methods. As noted, though there was some progress in transforming conflict resolution, the methods proved not to be holistically effective as more violent conflicts were observed years that followed. The second generation, from 1945 to 1965, is the foundation of conflict resolution field as outlined in this book. A new threat and a potential cause of conflict, the nuclear weapons were in the block. Conflict resolution emerged as an independent field with the journal of conflict resolution being developed in 1957. The period also saw development of conflict resolution models by scholars such as Johan Galtung, and John Burton. The third generation involved consolidations, a period from 1965 to 1985. There was more understanding of different levels of conflict; the interstate, domestic politics, and social conflicts. The fourth generation is reconstruction, which dates from 1985 to 2005. The cold war had come to an end. There was clear understanding of how combine different factors to in conflict resolution. Qualitative and quantitative w