Essay on Child Development
Child development refers to phases of social, cognitive, physical growth, which commences at birth and progress over early adulthood (Poehner & Lantolf, 2014). The theories focus on different phases of development including cognitive, emotional, and social growth. Similarly, it is pertinent to understand the educational, social, physical, emotional and cognitive growth that children undergo until early adulthood (Fairbairn, 2013). Some of the key theories that explain child development include Psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud, Sociocultural Theory by Lev Vygotsky, and Cognitive Development theory by Jean Piaget.
The methodology employed in this paper involved the use of secondary resources and academic research. The researcher collected secondary data on the topic of theoretical perspectives explaining childhood development (Malhotra, 2011). Additionally, the study applied systematic research design since the research intended to use comparative analysis in examining the different aspects of the child growth based on diverse theoretical perspectives (Malhotra, 2011). It was expected that with the application of this methodology tailored to others, a detailed analysis of dynamics such as factors influencing, the cognitive, social, and physical growth of a child.
Sigmund Freud invented the Psychoanalytic theory via his clinical experience with mentally ill patients. Subsequently, he inferred that childhood unconscious desires and experiences affect behaviour. The theory is founded on the psychological functioning, which includes child’s memories thoughts, perceptions, feelings, and ideas (Fairbairn, 2013). Based on Freud arguments, disagreements that take place during every stage can have permanent effects on behaviour and personality. Moreover, child growth takes place in an array of stages dedicated to various pleasure parts of the body (Schimmel, 2013). At every stage, the child comes across struggles that that contribute immensely to his/her development.
The psychoanalytical theory contends that the manner in which parent handled the basic aggressive and sexual desires of their children would influence their personalities later in life and their ability to become finely-adjusted as adults (Fairbairn, 2013). It stated that children growth happens through different phases of sexual development, which included Genital, Latency, Latency, Phallic, Anal, and Oral (Schimmel, 2013). Every stage pay close attention to pleasure and sexual activity obtained from a certain part of the body.
Precisely, in the Oral phase (below 18 months), children are attentive on the pleasure that they obtain from biting and sucking with their mouth while in the Anal stage (18 months to 3 years), the concentration changes to the anus as they start toilet learning and put effort to manage their bowels. In the Phallic stage (3-6 years), the attention passes to the sexual identification and genital stimulation that emerges with possessing or not possessing a penis (Fairbairn, 2013). Furthermore, in this stage, the theorist noted that ch