The stresses associated with an individual exposed to a bullying environment adversely impact on their abilities to function as well rounded adults. For instance, they are unable to develop and nurture intimate relationships. Similarly, they are unable to fluidly adapt to workplace environments implying that they suffer challenges attaining economic independence (Bradshaw, 2015). The issue of bullying is a significant one given that it continues in modern society and has even morphed to take on greater and unsuspecting victims in the virtual world which is more difficult to arrest (Bradshaw, 2015). An interesting outcome of the bullying environment worth investigation is that the victim as well as the perpetrator both encounter challenges in their adulthood years by reason of exposure to the associated negative behaviors.
It is proper to state that bullying seems to have an elongated history. According to Hymel and Swearer (2015), western literature dating back over one and a half centuries is sufficient proof that bullying has and remains a longstanding problem facing human society. Celebrated books like Oliver Twist and Tom Brown’s School Days by Charles Dickens and Thomas Hughes respectively highlight the prevalence of bullying during the 19th Century (Hymel & Swearer, 2015). The manner through which it is perpetrated in modern day times is more controversial than in the past century. For instance, through reality television shows and through graphic as well as violent video games, the capitalistic nature of modern society supports permeation of bullying across numerous fronts.
A number of reputable entities in the American healthcare system continue to underscore that bullying is a significant health problem that many of the country’s youth are exposed to. These include the American Psychological Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the White House (Bellmore, 2016). Bellmore (2016) defines bullying as intentional and aggressive behaviors that appertain to power imbalances and repeated over time. Bullying behaviors are either manifested through verbal aggression, direct physical confrontation, and can be relational or indirect in nature (Skrzypiec et al., 2018). A rather new aspect associated with modern day bullying is that it does not only occur offline but also happens on a variety of online platforms (Waasdorp & Bradshaw, 2015).
A lot of research on the bullying subject reveals that it not only harms the youth involved in it but it also adversely impacts on the schools where it occurs. As Bellmore (2016) provides, the issue inadvertently overflows, and unfavorably impacts on the broader public domain. For instance, Eriksen, Hogh, and Hansen (2016) highlight the fact that bullying behaviors not only affect adolescents and children of school going age groups but also occur widely within workplace environments. A worrying trend emanating from bullying behav