Given the speed at which asthma causes fatalities in pregnant women, it is critical for advanced healthcare practitioners to have an in-depth understanding of the similarities and variations of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation (Hasegawa et al. 2015). This requires practitioners to have skills and competencies associated with the pathophysiological manifestations of the two conditions. This paper seeks to present discussions on how advanced healthcare practitioners can comprehensively identify differences and similarities related to chronic asthma as well as acute asthma exacerbation. This paper will also discuss pregnancy as a patient factor affecting how a patient can be diagnosed and treatment of chronic asthma and chronic asthma exacerbation. In the last section of this paper, two mind maps for the two asthma conditions are presented to highlight the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatments discussed herein.
Pathophysiology of Chronic and Acute Asthma
Inflammations to a patient’s airways play a very huge role in the pathophysiological manifestation of chronic and acute asthma exacerbation. These inflammations result from the adverse interactions among many types of cells and complex mediators affecting the airways leading to the pathophysiological manifestations which characterize this disease (Huether &McCance, 2012). Common manifestations include limited airflow due to bronchial inflammations which results in drastic arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation. These result in patients experiencing recurrent periods of shortness of breath, wheezing and uncontrollable coughing.
The exposure to air pollutants, allergens, physical exercises, respiratory infections, intense emotional expressions, drugs, food additives and changing weather patterns are some of the clinically proven triggers to chronic and acute asthma exacerbations (Huether &McCance, 2012). Other known triggers are such patient factors