ANOVA Problem Solving Task
Two tests of hypotheses were conducted for this research to establish the influence of year levels and self-esteem program durations on the adolescent boys’ esteem. The first hypothesis (H0) stated that grade 11 and grade 12 do not have a significant difference in influencing the adolescent boys’ self-esteem change. It attempted to examine if a significant difference in the change of self-esteem among the adolescent boys from Brisbane Schools. The second hypothesis (H0) stated that one-hour, four-hour, ten-hour, twenty-hour programs of self-esteem do not have a significant difference in the impact of the adolescent boys’ self-esteem. It attempts to test whether a one-hour, four-hour, ten-hour, or twenty-hour programs significantly influence the adolescent boys’ self-esteem differently. The tests of hypotheses are in the subsequent sections.
The first hypothesis sought to test whether year levels had a significantly different influence on the self-esteem of the adolescent boys. The study used an independent sample t-test according to Sedgwick (2010) to test whether a significant difference existed in the self-esteem among the grade 11 and 12 boys. This is because of the quantitative research design that the study utilized (Mertens, 2014). The results in Appendices 1 and 2 revealed that a significant difference did not exist in self-esteem change between grade 11 (M=43.16, SD=22) and grade 12 (M=45.09, SD=21.39) conditions; t(318) = -0.793, p = 0.43. The research, therefore, failed to reject the null hypothesis (H0) indicating that it did not matter whether a boy belonged to grade 11 or 12 for a change to occur in their self-esteem.
According to Helwig & Ruprecht (2017), students in grade 11 and 12 frequently suffer from low self-esteem. Prior to reaching this stage, self-esteem is usually high, until the age of 14 and 15 years. Someone whose age is beyond the middle adolescent age is usually faced with relatively low self-esteem up to the age between 50 and 60 years (Helwig & Ruprecht, 2017). The findings from Helwig & Ruprecht (2017) shows that adolescent boys in grade 11 and 12 belonged to the same group that was expected to experience low self-esteem issues. The findings support the failure to reject the hypothesis, which attempted to check whether a statistically significant difference in self-esteem change existed among Brisbane Schools’ grade 11 and 12 adolescent boys.
The second hypothesis sought to find out whether different durations on self-esteem programs had a significant difference in influencing the adolescent boys’ self-esteem. The results on Appendix 3 indicate the mean self-esteem changes among the programs with different durations. The research used One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) according to Mrkvicka et al. (2016), to test whether a significant difference existed among the groups. A strong statistically significant difference existed between the different duration programs regarding the changes in self-esteem, F (3,316) = 60.09, p <0.001. The research thus rejected the second null hypothesis, and as such, there is evidence that the duration spent on each of the self-esteem improvement programs significantly influenced self-esteem in the adolescent boys. Further, Least Significant Difference (LSD) Post-Hoc tests to determine which program differed significantly from the other (Appendix 5). T