Liebert, a scientist with the Council for Responsible Genetics contributed in the Human Gene Therapy journal volume of 1993, the position of the CRG on human germ line manipulation which is to oppose the application of germ line manipulation in human beings because of the unpredictability of future outcomes. This intricately pieced article provides insights as to the developments in the field of genome engineering, different types of genetic modifications as well as political, technical, social, and ethical implications of adopting such technology. Liebert begins by identifying the ideas of the proponents of germ line gene modification and the biological maxims that tend to counteract against such thought; she points out that it is rather impossible for scientists to predict the full outcome of gene modification due to the complexity of interrelationships between one gene and other types of genes. Liebert clearly differentiates between the two types of gene modification; somatic cell gene modification which she points out has been extensively researched on animals and even tested on humans. She points out that somatic cell gene modification in human beings involves the waiver of a patients right to discontinue from participating in a research study due to the fact that such an intervention cannot be halted whether harmful or not. She also points out that the CRG’s position on this procedure is that it should be exercised with great caution more so only for patients who clearly exhibit life threatening situations. Germ line gene modification is the other gene modification that she discusses highlighting that modifying the germ cell ensures that such a modification will be passed on to future generations. The fact that future generations of those who undergo such gene manipulation may be affected, it is impossible to tell the impact this will have on the subjects and society thus the call to oppose germ line gene modification.
According to Nelson and Walters publishers of an article in the Science Research journals in 1993 discussing the demerits and merits of germ-line gene manipulation among human beings because of the technological advances that had been realized at the time. This article aimed to critically review advances in the field of genome science which had contributed significantly to the feasible development of germ line gene transfer technology; identify possible diseases known to be life threatening such that they could in essence call for interventions through the use of germ line gen