1388884990_An Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensor networks are basically distributed networks composed of tiny sensing devices which come equipped with a microprocessor chip, memory and enabled with a low-cost/short-range WIFI communication. These are ideally different from standard networks in that wireless sensor networks have major energy constraints, low data transmission rates and information flows that range widely [21-23]. In normal circumstances, sensor networks involve a large number of distributed nodes with self organizing capabilities which translate into a multi-hop WIFI network. This multi-hop ability enables enhanced energy efficiency within the network. It is possible to deploy WSN with multiple unattended nodes such that the core network architecture poses a significant challenge in WSN research studies [2, 24]. At present, the novel field of WSN research studies incorporates a number of diverse disciplines posing complex challenges to modern computer science, wireless communication and mobile computing [25-28].
It is a commonly accepted fact that wireless mediums suffer higher bit error rate (BER) in contrast to wired mediums . It is important not to assume the topology between nodes in wireless networks is fully connected but as a network with a logical topology which constantly changes depending on node or user movement from one point to another. Majority of the studies carried out on WSNs relate to finding solutions to problems consistent with wireless communication. Present research on WSNs is dedicated towards finding ways with which to improve on the Quality of Service (QoS) for multimedia applications [30, 31]. It is therefore important for one to stay well informed on current WSN research as well as other issues unique to WSNs and similarly improvised networks. The principal performance objectives for WSNs are energy efficiency and throughput neutralization with temporary delay and fairness being considered as secondary objectives [32, 21]. Standard wireless mediums shar